Ross M. English

1764 banned the import of rum, placed a duty on molasses imported from non-English areas and introduced taxes on wines, silks, coffee and other luxury items. A year later, the Stamp Act taxed all newspapers, pamphlets, licenses, leases and other legal documents, a measure which affected anyone who did business. Other initiatives introduced by the British included a ban on credit notes and a requirement that the colonies provide royal troops with provisions and barracks. The British actions had threatened the ability of the colonies to trade freely and, given the

in The United States Congress
South Africa in the post-imperial metropole
Laura Chrisman

chapter6 21/12/04 11:17 am Page 107 6 Transnational productions of Englishness: South Africa in the post-imperial metropole ‘Huge ideological work has to go on every day to produce this mouse that people can recognize as the English.’ Thus observes Stuart Hall, one of the foremost practitioners of black cultural studies in Britain.1 For Hall, the transformation of English national identity began with Margaret Thatcher’s 1979 government. The contemporary production of Englishness became, and continues to be, labour-intensive because England had lost the

in Postcolonial contraventions
Sukanta Chaudhuri

Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance 1 Theocritus Idyll viii Translated anonymously from the Greek From Sixe Idillia ... chosen out of ... Theocritus (1588). This idyll is part of the core Theocritus canon, though scholars have doubted his authorship; some have suggested that the poem amalgamates what were originally separate pieces. The viii. Idillion. Argument Menalcas a Shephearde, and Daphnis a Netehearde, two Sicilian lads, contending who should sing best, pawne their whistles, and choose a Gotehearde, to be their Iudge. Who giueth sentence on Daphnis

in Pastoral poetry of the English Renaissance
Chloe Porter

This book discusses early modern English drama as a part of visual culture. But what is visual culture, and why use this phrase in place of the ‘fine arts’ or the ‘visual arts’? In part, this choice is motivated by my concern with exploring the plays in their historical contexts. Shakespeare and his contemporaries would not have recognised the phrase ‘fine arts’. Nor would

in Making and unmaking in early modern English drama
Author: Ross M. English

The role of the Congress is essential to any study of American government and politics. It would be impossible to gain a complete understanding of the American system of government without an appreciation of the nature and workings of this essential body. This text looks at the workings of the United States Congress, and uses the Republican period of ascendancy, which lasted from 1994 until 2000, as an example of how the Congress works in practice. The book illustrates the basic principles of Congress using contemporary and recent examples, while also drawing attention to the changes that took place in the 1990s. The period of Republican control is absent from many of the standard texts and is of considerable academic interest for a number of reasons, not least the 1994 election, the budget deadlock in 1995 and the Clinton impeachment scandal of 1999. The book traces the origin and development of the United States Congress, before looking in depth at the role of representatives and senators, the committee system, parties in Congress, and the relationship between Congress and the President, the media and interest groups.

Spectators, aesthetics and encompletion
Author: Chloe Porter

This book discusses early modern English drama as a part of visual culture. It concerns the ideas about 'making and unmaking' that Shakespeare and his contemporaries may have known and formulated, and how these ideas relate to the author's own critical assumptions about early modern aesthetic experience. The study of drama as a part of visual culture offers the perfect context for an exploration of pre-modern aesthetic discourse. The book expounds the author's approach to plays as participants in a lively post-Reformation visual culture in the process of 're-formation'. It then focuses on the social meanings of patronage of the visual arts in a discussion of Paulina as patron of Hermione's image in The Winter's Tale. The discussion of The Winter's Tale pivots around the play's troubling investment in patriarchal notions of 'perfection'. The book also explores image-breaking in Robert Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. This play presents an instance of onstage iconoclasm in the supernatural destruction of a demonic brazen head, a quasi-magical figure that had been depicted in English literature since at least the twelfth century. In focusing on the portrayal of invisibility in The Two Merry Milkmaids, the book explores early modern preoccupation with processes of visual construction in a play in which there is very little artisanal activity.

Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

This chapter examines the congressional elections, which are held every two years and elect the entire House and around one third of the Senate each time, taking note of the 1994 Congressional elections, where the Republicans achieved a majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. It then introduces the Contract with America, a proposal that outlines ten key policies which would be brought to the floor of the House for a vote within the first 100 days if a Republican majority were elected. The chapter then takes a look at the candidate-centred campaigning, which features three characteristics of the American system, and also identifies the ways a US citizen can get elected into Congress.

in The United States Congress
Ross M. English

This chapter shows the responsibilities and goals of newly elected representatives and senators. It first describes the kinds of people who get elected into Congress, and then lists the different goals of the new members of Congress. This is followed by a list of the different ways a member of Congress can achieve his/her goals, including policy specialisation and pork barrel. The chapter also cites two examples – the impeachment of President Bill Clinton and term limits – that show the subtleties involved in Congressional decision making.

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

This chapter discusses the role and the power of the committee system, and examines the structure of the committee, where it lists the five types of committees in Congress. One of these is the standing committee, which reviews the bills introduced into Congress, gathers information and frames the legislation to be put to the floor; this process is outlined in the next section. The discussion also considers the distribution of power within the committee and tries to determine if the Senate or the House can control their committees. It furthermore assesses the role of committees and looks at the reforms that were passed in the 104th Congress.

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

This chapter explores the role played by political parties, one of the most overlooked aspects of Congress; shows how the Congress is organised along party lines; and outlines the various party leaders who can be found within the House of Representatives, such as the Speaker of the House and the Majority Leader. The final part takes a look at the different powers held by the party leaders.

in The United States Congress