banned the import of rum, placed a duty on molasses
imported from non-English areas and introduced taxes on
wines, silks, coffee and other luxury items. A year later, the
Stamp Act taxed all newspapers, pamphlets, licenses, leases
and other legal documents, a measure which affected anyone
who did business. Other initiatives introduced by the British
included a ban on credit notes and a requirement that the colonies provide royal troops with provisions and barracks.
The British actions had threatened the ability of the colonies to trade freely and, given the
Transnational productions of Englishness:
South Africa in the post-imperial metropole
‘Huge ideological work has to go on every day to produce this mouse
that people can recognize as the English.’ Thus observes Stuart Hall, one
of the foremost practitioners of black cultural studies in Britain.1 For
Hall, the transformation of English national identity began with
Margaret Thatcher’s 1979 government. The contemporary production
of Englishness became, and continues to be, labour-intensive because
England had lost the
Pastoral Poetry of the English Renaissance
1 Theocritus Idyll viii
Translated anonymously from the Greek
From Sixe Idillia ... chosen out of ... Theocritus (1588). This idyll is part of the core Theocritus canon,
though scholars have doubted his authorship; some have suggested that the poem amalgamates what
were originally separate pieces.
The viii. Idillion.
Menalcas a Shephearde, and Daphnis a Netehearde, two Sicilian lads, contending who
should sing best, pawne their whistles, and choose a Gotehearde, to be their Iudge. Who
giueth sentence on Daphnis
This book discusses early modern
English drama as a part of visual culture. But what is visual culture,
and why use this phrase in place of the ‘fine arts’ or the
‘visual arts’? In part, this choice is motivated by
my concern with exploring the plays in their historical contexts.
Shakespeare and his contemporaries would not have recognised the phrase
‘fine arts’. Nor would
This book discusses early modern English drama as a part of visual culture. It concerns the ideas about 'making and unmaking' that Shakespeare and his contemporaries may have known and formulated, and how these ideas relate to the author's own critical assumptions about early modern aesthetic experience. The study of drama as a part of visual culture offers the perfect context for an exploration of pre-modern aesthetic discourse. The book expounds the author's approach to plays as participants in a lively post-Reformation visual culture in the process of 're-formation'. It then focuses on the social meanings of patronage of the visual arts in a discussion of Paulina as patron of Hermione's image in The Winter's Tale. The discussion of The Winter's Tale pivots around the play's troubling investment in patriarchal notions of 'perfection'. The book also explores image-breaking in Robert Greene's Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay. This play presents an instance of onstage iconoclasm in the supernatural destruction of a demonic brazen head, a quasi-magical figure that had been depicted in English literature since at least the twelfth century. In focusing on the portrayal of invisibility in The Two Merry Milkmaids, the book explores early modern preoccupation with processes of visual construction in a play in which there is very little artisanal activity.
The role of the Congress is essential to any study of American government and politics. It would be impossible to gain a complete understanding of the American system of government without an appreciation of the nature and workings of this essential body. This text looks at the workings of the United States Congress, and uses the Republican period of ascendancy, which lasted from 1994 until 2000, as an example of how the Congress works in practice. The book illustrates the basic principles of Congress using contemporary and recent examples, while also drawing attention to the changes that took place in the 1990s. The period of Republican control is absent from many of the standard texts and is of considerable academic interest for a number of reasons, not least the 1994 election, the budget deadlock in 1995 and the Clinton impeachment scandal of 1999. The book traces the origin and development of the United States Congress, before looking in depth at the role of representatives and senators, the committee system, parties in Congress, and the relationship between Congress and the President, the media and interest groups.
This chapter studies the powers given to the President and Congress, showing that the United States Constitution ensures that every power given to the President and Congress is checked by the other government branch. It notes that Congress is the only body which can pass federal laws, and that it acts as an overseer of the executive branch. On the other hand, the President has the power to veto legislation that is passed by Congress, even if two thirds of the Senate and the House agree. The chapter also studies the concept of divided government, which has become frequent in the United States over the years.
This chapter discusses the role and the power of the committee system, and examines the structure of the committee, where it lists the five types of committees in Congress. One of these is the standing committee, which reviews the bills introduced into Congress, gathers information and frames the legislation to be put to the floor; this process is outlined in the next section. The discussion also considers the distribution of power within the committee and tries to determine if the Senate or the House can control their committees. It furthermore assesses the role of committees and looks at the reforms that were passed in the 104th Congress.
This chapter shows the responsibilities and goals of newly elected representatives and senators. It first describes the kinds of people who get elected into Congress, and then lists the different goals of the new members of Congress. This is followed by a list of the different ways a member of Congress can achieve his/her goals, including policy specialisation and pork barrel. The chapter also cites two examples – the impeachment of President Bill Clinton and term limits – that show the subtleties involved in Congressional decision making.