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Open Access (free)
The European Union and its member states

This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.

The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

first negotiated accession to the European Community in 1961–62, it also made a strong point of accommodating the interests of its own former colonies. This would be repeated during the second round of its accession negotiations in the early 1970s (Tulloch, 1975: 37, 101–3; Grilli, 1993: 16; Todd, 1999: 62–3). As a result, when the UK finally joined the European Community in 1973, the group of recipients of EC development assistance was drastically expanded to include a large number of the UK’s Commonwealth cooperation partners in Anglophone Africa, the Caribbean and

in EU development cooperation
A discourse view on the European Community and the abolition of border controls in the second half of the 1980s
Stef Wittendorp

W HAT KIND OF order did the European Community (EC) and later the European Union (EU) become by deciding to abolish border controls between the member states in the second half of the 1980s? The EU has been celebrated as a postnational entity which has been able to overcome old enmities between European states that resulted in so many wars in the past. Against this

in Security/ Mobility
Analysing two arenas over time
Wolfgang Wessels, Andreas Maurer, and Jürgen Mittag

complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). Unlike volumes on the general structure and culture of European political systems, this volume focuses on reactions and adaptations to a challenge which is common to all – i.e. the policy-cycle of the Union. We thus intend to explore structural commonalities and differences with a common point of reference. Fifteen traditional systems and their variations may be better explained when the comparison is based on the

in Fifteen into one?
The role of France and French interests in European development policy since 1957
Anne-Sophie Claeys

:15 PM Page 116 Anne-Sophie Claeys enlargement, the French language was the only medium of reflection and decision within the European Community. It was even suggested that the French President Pompidou conditioned the EC membership of the United Kingdom to the arrival at the Commission of bilingual English civil servants (Guérivière, 1992: 54)! Progressively, the use of the English language has taken over that of French, which was still prevailing in DG VIII/DG DEV until the nomination of Danish Commissioner Nielson in 1999. The financial channel The financial

in EU development cooperation
Open Access (free)
One way to Europeanisation
Maria João Seabra

2444Ch15 3/12/02 15 2:06 pm Page 355 Maria João Seabra Portugal: one way to Europeanisation Introduction: from enthusiasm via Euro-pessimism towards active support Portugal joined the European Communities in 1986, following a process of negotiations that had lasted eight years. The request for membership was made in March 1977, at a time when the country was still deeply engaged in the process of democratic transition. Internally, the European option was considered to be decisive to the consolidation of democracy. Shortly after the 25 April 1977 coup d

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Fragmented structures in a complex system
Andreas Maurer

Verlag, 1998). 11 Katzenstein (ed.), 1997, op. cit., pp. 49–79. 12 See the coalition agreement of the CDU/CSU–FDP government of November 1994 and its paragraph on the ‘Guidelines of European Policy’. 13 See the coalition agreement between the SPD–GREENS government entitled ‘Aufbruch und Erneuerung – Deutschlands Weg ins 21. Jahrhundert’, 20 October 1998. 14 See Leon N. Lindberg and Stuart A. Scheingold, Europe’s Would-Be Polity. Patterns of Change in the European Community (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970). 2444Ch5 3/12/02 142 2:02 pm Page 142 Member

in Fifteen into one?
Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 11 27/5/03 12:03 pm Page 360 11 European and foreign policy of the Länder Introduction At first it would appear that this chapter is misnamed. Surely “European and Foreign Policy” are themes that belong to the federal government. They do, of course, but the Länder are not irrelevant in these areas. Indeed, European policy is now to a considerable extent domestic policy, and many responsibilities that have traditionally belonged to the Länder have been and are today the subjects of European Community – now EU – regulations and legislation. The efforts

in The Länder and German federalism
Richard Parrish

European Communities 1998: 26) Sport and EU competition law 125 As such, the Commission has indicated that in some circumstances collective selling does have a place in sport. This view was confirmed in the Formula One investigation (see below) in which the Commission indicated that collective selling was appropriate due to the specific characteristics of motor sport and in particular Formula One.17 Exclusivity Exclusivity is closely connected to collective selling. By denying a competitor access to broadcast a particular sporting event, the purchaser of the exclusive

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)
The potential and limits of EU development cooperation policy
Karin Arts and Anna K. Dickson

This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on concepts discussed in this book. The book assesses the record of development cooperation from the Treaty of Rome to Lomé, and beyond to Cotonou. It also assesses the implications of the trends identified for future development policy and to conceptualise the role of European Union (EU) external action in the realm of development. Development policy constitutes a key aspect of EU foreign policy. The negotiations for future African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP)-EU trade aim to create free trade areas between the European Community (EC) and sub-regions of the ACP group. The Cotonou Agreement proposes finally to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agenda.

in EU development cooperation