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Is the CFSP sui generis?
Jakob C. Øhrgaard

The study of European integration has in the past been plagued by the so-called sui generis problem: ‘the EU is considered somehow beyond international relations, somehow a quasi-state or an inverted federation, or some other locution’ (Long 1997 : 187). At the empirical level of analysis, few would deny that the EU does indeed display unique characteristics, be it in its scope, institutional

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Neil McNaughton

The development Issues concerningofwomen European integration The development of European integration 191 13 ➤ Review of the progress towards greater integration in Europe since the 1950s ➤ An identification of the key stages in integration ➤ Explanations of the different forms of integration which have emerged ➤ The main issues concerning integration ➤ Speculation concerning the future course of integration POST-WAR EUROPE After two world wars, both of which devastated European industry and threatened permanently to sour relations between its states, Europe

in Understanding British and European political issues
Author: Neil McNaughton

This book seeks to review the state of political issues early in the twenty-first century, when New Labour is in its second term of office. As part of the updating process it became necessary to choose which political issues are important. The book includes the main issues which appear in current Advanced Level Politics syllabuses. In the case of Edexcel, which offers a specific political issues option in its A2 specification, all the specified issues have been included. The book deals with the process of constitutional and political change which are issues in themselves. It also includes material on constitutional reform (incorporating the recent development of human rights in Britain), and devolution. The book includes the global recession and other recent political developments and looks at the important issues in British politics since 1945. It examines the key issues of British politics today: economic policy, the Welfare State, law and order, environment policy, Northern Ireland, issues concerning women, European integration and the European Union, and the impact of the European Union on Britain. The book also deals with the European Union and Britain's relationship to it. Finally, it must be emphasised that Britain's relationship to the European Union is in itself a political issue which has fundamentally changed the party system.

In the story of post-Cold War conceptual confusion, the war in and over Kosovo stands out as a particularly interesting episode. This book provides new and stimulating perspectives on how Kosovo has shaped the new Europe. It breaks down traditional assumptions in the field of security studies by sidelining the theoretical worldview that underlies mainstream strategic thinking on recent events in Kosovo. The book offers a conceptual overview of the Kosovo debate, placing these events in the context of globalisation, European integration and the discourse of modernity and its aftermath. It then examines Kosovo's impact on the idea of war. One of the great paradoxes of the war in Kosovo was that it was not just one campaign but two: there was the ethnic cleansing campaign in Kosovo and the allied bombing campaign against targets in Kosovo and all over Serbia. Serbia's killing of Kosovo has set the parameters of the Balkanisation-integration nexus, offering 'Europe' (and the West in general) a unique opportunity to suggest itself as the strong centre that keeps the margins from running away. Next, it investigates 'Kosovo' as a product of the decay of modern institutions and discourses like sovereignty, statehood, the warring state or the United Nations system. 'Kosovo' has introduced new overtones into the European Weltanschauung and the ways in which 'Europe' asserts itself as an independent power discourse in a globalising world: increasingly diffident, looking for firm foundations in the conceptual void of the turn of the century.

Open Access (free)
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

1 The theoretical setting Why theorise? Forty years of theorising European integration have produced a situation where one might expect that little remains to be said. This is not an attempt to escape the intellectual responsibility of developing a greater understanding of the forces that constantly form and reform the regional system. It is only to state that the theory of such a polysemous concept as ‘integration’ appears to have reached a high plateau in its Western European context. Not that theorists of European integration should start looking for new

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Domestic change through European integration
Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack, and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann

2444Ch14 3/12/02 14 2:05 pm Page 337 Otmar Höll, Johannes Pollack and Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann Austria: domestic change through European integration Introduction: ambivalence as ‘Leitmotiv’ Austria’s attitude towards the (West) European integration process after 1945 has been ambivalent at best.1 The Second Republic was designed as a democratic system, based on political pluralism and party competition. However, its political culture and its real character (Realverfassung), because of its strong corporatist elements, developed into the typical features of

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Progress behind complexity
Flaminia Gallo and Birgit Hanny

2444Ch11 3/12/02 11 2:04 pm Page 271 Flaminia Gallo and Birgit Hanny Italy: progress behind complexity Introduction: integration as a stabilising factor Since the beginning of the European integration process the Italian membership of the Community seems to have been perceived by masses and elites as a kind of higher political good – scholars even speak of the Union as a ‘collective myth’ for Italian society.1 Besides the deficits in the country’s day-to-day performance in EC policies – e.g. in the implementation of EC law – Italian society has broadly

in Fifteen into one?
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

scholars who stressed the fact that the theory did not take into account the wider international environment within which Community change was to flourish.2 So why did neofunctionalism, which had been obsolescent for some twenty years, emerge once again as the leading theory of European integration? A possible answer is that the SEA was hailed by many observers at the time as opening up new horizons for positive integration. Neofunctionalism was in fact the only theory that could place, if not justify, these claims in a dynamic, macropolitical perspective. After all, the

in Theory and reform in the European Union
Open Access (free)
A former founding father in search of control
Ben J.S. Hoetjes

2444Ch13 3/12/02 13 2:05 pm Page 315 Ben J.S. Hoetjes The Netherlands: a former founding father in search of control Introduction: a mature member’s second thoughts The involvement of the Dutch in European integration dates back to the 1950s, and so do the Dutch attitudes towards it. Over the years, they have changed, but there is also a long-standing support for the overall process of European integration. A clear distinction, however, should be drawn between the elite and the general public. For the general public, European integration in the 1950s was a

in Fifteen into one?
Arthur B. Gunlicks

by the Länder to protect their sphere of responsibility from EU incursions or, at the very least, to participate in the decision making that affects them directly, have been of varying success over the years. However, it seems as if they are now in a stronger position than ever before to influence decisions in Brussels. They also continue to have a modest impact on foreign policy, particularly in the area of foreign aid, where they have been quite successful in very specific areas of activity. The Länder and European integration European integration as a challenge

in The Länder and German federalism