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Richard Parrish

4 Sport and the European Court of Justice The ECJ is an important agenda setter. Court rulings play an important part in defining the content of the EU’s systemic agenda and the conditions under which an issue is transferred to the institutional agenda for active policy development. The ECJ’s line of reasoning in relation to sport has been developed within the context of a number of important institutional relationships. As such, the ECJ’s role in establishing the boundaries of EU sports regulation is not deterministic. In Walrave, Donà and Heylens, the ECJ

in Sports law and policy in the European Union

The increasing commercialisation of sport raises important questions concerning regulation. The development of the European Union (EU) and the internationalization of sporting competition have added an international dimension to this debate. Yet sport is not only a business, it is a social and cultural activity. Can regulation at the EU level reconcile this tension? Adopting a distinctive legal and political analysis, this book argues that the EU is receptive to the claim of sport for special treatment before the law. It investigates the birth of EU sports law and policy by examining the impact of the Bosman ruling and other important European Court of Justice decisions, the relationship between sport and EU competition law, focusing particularly on the broadcasting of sport, the organization of sport and the international transfer system, and the relationship between sport and the EU Treaty, focusing in particular on the impact of the Amsterdam and Nice declarations on sport and the significance of the Helsinki report on sport. This text raises questions concerning the appropriate theoretical tools for analysing European integration.

Richard Parrish

This chapter examines the political context of sports relationship with the European Union (EU). The 1994 Larive report links the active or passive participation in sport with the social and cultural identity of people. The Pack report reflects the more socio-cultural tendencies within the Parliament. The Television Without Frontiers (TWF) Directive goes against a trend in European sport favouring a free market in broadcasting. The Amsterdam Declaration added impetus to the socio-cultural agenda whilst equipping them with an additional institutional venue to exploit. The Helsinki report represents a continuation of Parliamentary thinking regarding the importance of extending the right of free movement to all EU citizens. Policy change is evident within the sports policy subsystem. The regulation of sport in the EU has been politicised. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) rulings/decisions are significant in that they mark the birth of an area of EU law called ‘EU sports law’.

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls
Sibylle Bauer
Eric Remacle

undercutting. Before undercutting can take place, the two governments involved are required to enter into consultations. As a Council Declaration, the Code agreement is only politically, not legally binding. And since it was agreed within CFSP, on the basis of Title V of the TEU, its implementation cannot be enforced by the European Court of Justice (Article 46 TEU). Thus no Community legislation on arms exports exists to date. And

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Open Access (free)
John Mceldowney

front line of major political controversies and, in many instances, the full glare of publicity. This may be unearthing facts and attributing fault at the expense of eroding judicial independence. Society might or might not regard this as a risk worth taking if it provides an independent review of government decisions (Loughlin 2001: 41). The European dimension The development of the European Union (EU) is another example of how judges now appear to be at the apex of power. The European Court of Justice provides member states with a valuable means of resolving

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Richard Parrish

sport has no place in the Treaty. Nevertheless, Article 3 does state that the EU is to establish an area where goods, persons, services and capital can freely circulate and where competition is not distorted. As an activity of undoubted commercial significance, sports bodies must therefore ensure that their activities do not contradict these Treaty provisions. As the European Court of Justice’s (ECJ’s) ruling in Bosman demonstrated, EU law can have a profound impact on sport. Although this brief explanation does not justify the label ‘EU sports law’, it does explain

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey K. Roberts
Patricia Hogwood

)/Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie European and cross-national organisations ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific (states) CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy COREPER Committee of Permanent Representatives CSCE Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe EC European Community ECB European Central Bank ECJ European Court of Justice ECOFIN Economic and Finance Council (of Ministers) ECSC European Coal and Steel Community ECU European

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Maintaining trust
Heidi Mertes

all inventions based on research in which embryos were destroyed should be unpatentable – contrary to what was decided by the European Court of Justice in the famous Brüstle v. Greenpeace case in 2011 (European Commission 2011).1 However, the research itself, the findings about reproductive biology, embryogenesis, outcomes of different cryopreservation techniques etc. should be made public. By sharing this research, the recipient of the donated embryos in turn shows reciprocity towards the donors/IVF patients. A policy of mandatory sharing of information also

in The freedom of scientific research
Arantza Gomez Arana

between the EU and its member states resembles a federal system in many ways (Pollack 2005). However, Pollack (2005) argues that the way that this is expressed in such vague language implies that most policy areas are dealt with at both the national and the supranational levels. The vague nature of this institutional arrangement enables the European Court of Justice to clarify the limitations that are not established in the Treaties. Consequently, whenever there is disagreement, the European Court of 54 The EU’s policy towards Mercosur Justice will decide who

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Towards a union or not?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

governments for this, or they may blame Brussels. If they choose the former, the government in question normally throws up its arms and points to Brussels. However, it is difficult to pinpoint responsibility in Brussels. The Council of Ministers is still a secretive body, with virtually none of its meetings public, although it is a fundamental tenet of democracy that any law-making meeting of any legislative body must be public. The same holds for meetings of the Commission. In 1996 the United Kingdom was forced through a verdict by the EU’s European Court of Justice to

in Destination Europe