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Rhiannon Vickers

Vic03 10/15/03 2:10 PM Page 54 Chapter 3 Labour and the First World War The Labour Party grew only moderately in parliamentary strength following its 1906 election success of thirty seats, gaining forty seats in the election of January 1910, and forty-two seats in the election the following December.1 However, the labour movement in general was growing significantly in terms of its economic, social and political impact, with trade union membership increasing from just under two million in 1900 to over four million in 1914, at a time of rising union

in The Labour Party and the world, volume 1
The evolution of Labour’s foreign policy, 1900–51

This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.

The First World War was the first ‘total war’. Its industrial weaponry damaged millions of men, and drove whole armies underground into dangerously unhealthy trenches. Many were killed. Others suffered from massive, life-threatening injuries; wound infections such as gas gangrene and tetanus; exposure to extremes of temperature; emotional trauma; and systemic disease. Tens of thousands of women volunteered to serve as nurses to alleviate their suffering. Some were fully-trained professionals; others had minimal preparation, and served as volunteer-nurses. Their motivations were a combination of compassion, patriotism, professional pride and a desire for engagement in the ‘great enterprise’ of war. The war led to an outpouring of war-memoirs, produced mostly by soldier-writers whose works came to be seen as a ‘literary canon’ of war-writing. But nurses had offered immediate and long-term care, life-saving expertise, and comfort to the war’s wounded, and their experiences had given them a perspective on industrial warfare which was unique. Until recently, their contributions, both to the saving of lives and to our understanding of warfare have remained largely hidden from view. ‘Nurse Writers of the Great War’ examines these nurses’ memoirs and explores the insights they offer into the nature of nursing and the impact of warfare. The book combines close biographical research with textual analysis, in order to offer an understanding of both nurses’ wartime experiences and the ways in which their lives and backgrounds contributed to the style and content of their writing.

Siblings, masculinity and emotions
Author: Linda Maynard

Drawing on a broad range of personal accounts, this is the first detailed study of siblinghood in wartime. The relative youth of the fighting men of the Great War intensified the emotional salience of sibling relationships. Long separations, trauma and bereavement tested sibling ties forged through shared childhoods, family practices, commitments and interests. We must not equate the absence of a verbal language of love with an absence of profound feelings. Quieter familial values of kindness, tolerance and unity, instilled by parents and reinforced by moral instruction, strengthened bonds between brothers and sisters. Examining the nexus of cultural and familial emotional norms, this study reveals the complex acts of mediation undertaken by siblings striving to reconcile conflicting obligations to society, the army and loved ones in families at home. Brothers enlisted and served together. Siblings witnessed departures and homecomings, shared family responsibilities, confided their anxieties and provided mutual support from a distance via letters and parcels. The strength soldier-brothers drew from each other came at an emotional cost to themselves and their comrades. The seismic casualties of the First World War proved a watershed moment in the culture of mourning and bereavement. Grief narratives reveal distinct patterns of mourning following the death of a loved sibling, suggesting a greater complexity to male grief than is often acknowledged. Surviving siblings acted as memory keepers, circumventing the anonymisation of the dead in public commemorations by restoring the particular war stories of their brothers.

Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

has become a cliché in the humanitarian world, where one frequently hears the depressing observation above, often summed up with two figures: during the First World War, 80–90 per cent of the victims were soldiers, whereas the proportions are now reversed ( Kaldor, 1999 ; Roberts, 2010 ). In reality, the biggest victims of current conflicts – at least in terms of numbers – are young men of fighting age. We are no doubt more sensitive to the loss of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

the aftermath of the First World War, the period following the Second World War, and later, the post-Cold War 1990s. Biafra has certainly been mythologised by the humanitarian community. In the case of MSF [Medécins Sans Frontières], for example, it has been constructed in such a way as to reinforce a particular image of that organisation’s origins. Nonetheless, some of Biafra’s tropes are actually very useful for signalling its importance. The idea that this was the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

Introduction The Great War remembered The First World War was known in its own time as the Great War; its protagonists believed that it would be ‘the war to end all wars’.1 The earliest attempts to recapture it  – either as memoir or as history – struggled to put into words a reality that was so complex that it defied expression. Later generations created their own collective cultural understandings but most of these were based on the male, combatant experience. It was not until the 1980s that the perspectives of women gained public attention; even then, the

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

8 The British ‘VAD’ Introduction: becoming a VAD The allied nursing workforce of the First World War was a complex, heterogeneous group of the trained, the semi-trained, and the almost completely untrained. In Britain, instruction for volunteer nurses (the so-called ‘VADs’) was administered by Voluntary Aid Detachments, acting under the auspices of the British Society of the Red Cross and the St John Ambulance Association, a branch of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Most British VADs took courses, passed examinations, and obtained certificates in four

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

minister of war ‘a little army of fully trained British nurses’,12 who might be deployed in French military hospitals to fill the gaps in the existing provision. This and other opportunities for British nurses to travel to France and work close to the front lines coincided with a failure of the British military medical services to make full use of their professional skills and knowledge. Anne Summers has pointed out that, in the decades prior to the First World War, the QAIMNS – whilst fully recognised as an elite nursing corps – had remained small, with the bulk of

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
James E. Connolly

aim is to enrich our understanding of an often-​neglected aspect of the history of France v1v 2 The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914–18 and of the First World War by examining the beliefs and behaviours of those forced to respond to the daily presence of the national enemy. To better understand the purpose of this book, it is necessary to return to the opening salvo of the Prime Minister’s October 1918 proclamation. ‘Nothing will be forgotten’ Clemenceau’s statement proved false. The occupation of northern France in the First World War faded rapidly from

in The experience of occupation in the Nord, 1914– 18