Labour and the FirstWorldWar
The Labour Party grew only moderately in parliamentary strength
following its 1906 election success of thirty seats, gaining forty seats in
the election of January 1910, and forty-two seats in the election the
following December.1 However, the labour movement in general was
growing significantly in terms of its economic, social and political
impact, with trade union membership increasing from just under two
million in 1900 to over four million in 1914, at a time of rising union
Adrien Douchet, Taline Garibian, and Benoît Pouget
The aim of this article is to shed light on the conditions under which the funerary management of human remains was carried out by the French authorities during the early years of the First World War. It seeks to understand how the urgent need to clear the battlefield as quickly as possible came into conflict with the aspiration to give all deceased an individualised, or at the very least dignified, burial. Old military funerary practices were overturned and reconfigured to incorporate an ideal that sought the individual identification of citizen soldiers. The years 1914–15 were thus profoundly marked by a clash between the pragmatism of public health authorities obsessed with hygiene, the infancy of emerging forensic science, the aching desire of the nation to see its children buried individually and various political and military imperatives related to the conduct of the war.
This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.
The First World War was the first ‘total war’. Its industrial weaponry damaged millions of men, and drove whole armies underground into dangerously unhealthy trenches. Many were killed. Others suffered from massive, life-threatening injuries; wound infections such as gas gangrene and tetanus; exposure to extremes of temperature; emotional trauma; and systemic disease. Tens of thousands of women volunteered to serve as nurses to alleviate their suffering. Some were fully-trained professionals; others had minimal preparation, and served as volunteer-nurses. Their motivations were a combination of compassion, patriotism, professional pride and a desire for engagement in the ‘great enterprise’ of war. The war led to an outpouring of war-memoirs, produced mostly by soldier-writers whose works came to be seen as a ‘literary canon’ of war-writing. But nurses had offered immediate and long-term care, life-saving expertise, and comfort to the war’s wounded, and their experiences had given them a perspective on industrial warfare which was unique. Until recently, their contributions, both to the saving of lives and to our understanding of warfare have remained largely hidden from view. ‘Nurse Writers of the Great War’ examines these nurses’ memoirs and explores the insights they offer into the nature of nursing and the impact of warfare. The book combines close biographical research with textual analysis, in order to offer an understanding of both nurses’ wartime experiences and the ways in which their lives and backgrounds contributed to the style and content of their writing.
Drawing on a broad range of personal accounts, this is the first detailed study of siblinghood in wartime. The relative youth of the fighting men of the Great War intensified the emotional salience of sibling relationships. Long separations, trauma and bereavement tested sibling ties forged through shared childhoods, family practices, commitments and interests. We must not equate the absence of a verbal language of love with an absence of profound feelings. Quieter familial values of kindness, tolerance and unity, instilled by parents and reinforced by moral instruction, strengthened bonds between brothers and sisters. Examining the nexus of cultural and familial emotional norms, this study reveals the complex acts of mediation undertaken by siblings striving to reconcile conflicting obligations to society, the army and loved ones in families at home. Brothers enlisted and served together. Siblings witnessed departures and homecomings, shared family responsibilities, confided their anxieties and provided mutual support from a distance via letters and parcels. The strength soldier-brothers drew from each other came at an emotional cost to themselves and their comrades. The seismic casualties of the First World War proved a watershed moment in the culture of mourning and bereavement. Grief narratives reveal distinct patterns of mourning following the death of a loved sibling, suggesting a greater complexity to male grief than is often acknowledged. Surviving siblings acted as memory keepers, circumventing the anonymisation of the dead in public commemorations by restoring the particular war stories of their brothers.
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
has become a cliché in the humanitarian
world, where one frequently hears the depressing observation above, often summed up
with two figures: during the FirstWorldWar, 80–90 per cent of the victims
were soldiers, whereas the proportions are now reversed ( Kaldor, 1999 ; Roberts,
In reality, the biggest victims of current conflicts – at least in terms of
numbers – are young men of fighting age. We are no doubt more sensitive to
the loss of
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat
Analysis of Discursive Constructions of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in the UK Press, 1996–2005 ’,
Journal of English Linguistics ,
5 – 38 .
( 2005 ),
A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I ( Bloomington, IN :
Indiana University Press ).
( 2013 ),
The Making of the Modern Refugee ( Oxford :
Oxford University Press ).
( 2014 ), ‘ Refugees ’,
1914–1918 Online. International Encyclopedia of the FirstWorldWar ,
October , doi: 10.15463/ie
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
( 2017 ), ‘
Genocide, Famine and Refugees on Film: Humanitarianism and the FirstWorldWar ’,
Past & Present ,
197 – 235 .
( 2012 ), ‘
Framing Atrocity: Photography and Humanitarianism ’,
History of Photography ,
255 – 64 .
( 1997 ), ‘ Way of Seeing: The New Vision of Early Nonfiction Film ’, in
de Klerk ,
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Stichting Nederlands Filmmuseum ), pp.
119 – 32 .
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
the aftermath of the FirstWorldWar, the period following the
Second World War, and later, the post-Cold War 1990s. Biafra has certainly been
mythologised by the humanitarian community. In the case of MSF [Medécins Sans
Frontières], for example, it has been constructed in such a way as to
reinforce a particular image of that organisation’s origins. Nonetheless,
some of Biafra’s tropes are actually very useful for signalling its
importance. The idea that this was the
The Great War remembered
The FirstWorldWar was known in its own time as the Great War;
its protagonists believed that it would be ‘the war to end all wars’.1
The earliest attempts to recapture it – either as memoir or as history – struggled to put into words a reality that was so complex that
it defied expression. Later generations created their own collective
cultural understandings but most of these were based on the male,
combatant experience. It was not until the 1980s that the perspectives
of women gained public attention; even then, the