Jay Garcia

The intellectual connection between James Baldwin and Lionel Trilling, and the resonances across their criticism, are more substantial than scholarly and biographical treatments have disclosed. For Trilling, Baldwin’s writings were notable for their deviation from most humanistic inquiry, which he considered insufficiently alert to the harms and depredations of culture. Baldwin’s work became for Trilling a promising indication that American criticism could be remade along the lines of a tragic conception of culture deriving from Freud. This essay concentrates on a relevant but neglected dynamic in American letters—the mid-twentieth-century tension between Freudian thought and American humanistic inquiry evident in fields like American Studies—to explain the intellectual coordinates within which Trilling developed an affinity for Baldwin’s work. The essay concludes by suggesting that the twilight of Freud’s tragic conception of culture, which figured centrally in the modernist critical environment in which Baldwin and Trilling encountered one another, contributed to an estrangement whereby the two came to be seen as unrelated and different kinds of critics, despite the consonance of their critical idioms during the 1940s and 1950s.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Intimacy, Shame, and the Closet in James Baldwin’s Giovanni’s Room
Monica B. Pearl

This essay’s close interrogation of James Baldwin’s 1956 novel Giovanni’s Room allows us to see one aspect of how sexual shame functions: it shows how shame exposes anxiety not only about the feminizing force of homosexuality, but about how being the object of the gaze is feminizing—and therefore shameful. It also shows that the paradigm of the closet is not the metaphor of privacy and enclosure on one hand and openness and liberation on the other that it is commonly thought to be, but instead is a site of illusory control over whether one is available to be seen and therefore humiliated by being feminized. Further, the essay reveals the paradox of denial, where one must first know the thing that is at the same time being disavowed or denied. The narrative requirements of fictions such as Giovanni’s Room demonstrate this, as it requires that the narrator both know, in order to narrate, and not know something at the same time.

James Baldwin Review
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

destructive. While we can agree with Nietzsche that nihilism is a motor of modern history, it is a mistake to see it in purely negative terms. One of the greatest myths about contemporary violence is still connected to rather old psycho-analytical insights concerning fatalism and the egotistical downfall of the deluded man. Freud’s notion of the death drive in many ways is integral to the de-legitimation of the violence we do not like on account of its negation of human existence ( Freud, 1991 ). Of course, it is necessary to understand the psychic life of violence, and to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

sovereignty. But it is more likely that the world system will go through a prolonged period of turbulence and wars provoked by sudden changes and increasingly unstable alliances, precisely because it is reproducing the history of the formation of the European state system on a planetary scale. Notes 1 Translated from Portugese by Juliano Fiori. 2 In the psychological and psychoanalytical theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, as in the structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss, mythology occupies a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Birgit Lang

collectively referred to as creative artists. Both psychiatric discourse and the more conservative strand of psychoanalytic discourse provided a powerful new lens through which to interpret b ­iographies of exceptional human beings. Artist pathographies, or psychiatric case studies of creative artists, expanded the case study genre towards biography and presented readers with new insights into the private lives of particular creative artists. Sigmund Freud and his pupil Otto Rank brought contrasting approaches to enquiring into aspects of artistic personality, creativity and

in A history of the case study
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

chopped up in bits’, posed The narrative push 21 a model of the self divided into three components: material, social and spiritual – and he said to Freud in 1909 that ‘the future of psychology belongs to your work’.4 Psychoanalysis emerged as simply ‘a psychology that emphasised the unconscious mind’,5 rather than its conscious counterpart. Indeed, Richard Slobodin has claimed that ‘in the pre-war years there was no great gulf between psychoanalysis and the experimental forms of neurology and psychology’, reminding us that Freud had been a neurologist.6 But the

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Literary satire and Oskar Panizza’s Psichopatia criminalis (1898)
Birgit Lang

acknowledgement of Krafft-Ebing’s new intellectual adventures in the world of sexual perversion, nor of the explorations of hysteria undertaken respectively by Ganser, Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer. The dialectic in Psichopatia criminalis is the exaggeration that any thought directed against authority both undermines the order of the German state and constitutes the symptom of a psychiatric illness that requires institutionalisation. Ultimately, of course, this implies that all human beings need to be committed to a mental asylum.23 Panizza’s technique of negation is repeated

in A history of the case study
Bonnie Evans

sale of 62,000 copies of his book in the English language, with more in translation, ‘I am ever more convinced that these principles are valid.’ 11 Furthermore, in 1938, Freud and his family moved from Vienna to London in order to escape persecution. Freud’s psychological take on instincts, society and individualism was becoming increasingly well known in Britain, in

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Chantal Chawaf ’s melancholic autofiction
Kathryn Robson

position of a melancholic: ‘La blessure que je viens de subir’ (p. ; my italics) (‘The wound I have just suffered’ (p. )). In speaking as a melancholic, rather than as an analyst, she seems to suggest that melancholia demands a first-person subject position.  Rewriting the past Yet psychoanalytic theories of melancholia following from Freud repeatedly emphasise that melancholia precisely cannot be spoken in the first person. In this chapter, I focus on the figure of the female vampire in Vers la lumière in order to explore what it means to ‘write melancholia’ in the

in Women’s writing in contemporary France
Open Access (free)
Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’
Andrew Bowie

becomes manifest that nature is originally identical with what is known in us as intelligent and conscious’ (I/3 p. 341). Schelling attempts to address the identity of the processes of nature with the processes of thought in terms now more familiar from Freud. Nature is described as being ‘unconsciously’ productive, and ‘mind’ as being ‘consciously’ productive. Manfred Frank and Gerhard Kurz suggest that ‘Freud and Schelling both presume that consciousness means becoming conscious, a fragile synthesis of voluntary and involuntary motivations, and that this consciousness

in Aesthetics and subjectivity