Community, language and culture under the Celtic Tiger
Steve Coleman

.14 Following the loss of native sovereignty and the colonisation of Ireland, English had become increasingly identified with the domains of religion, government and commerce. Even before the Great Famine, Irish was being rapidly abandoned in Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking) areas. The nineteenth century saw the penetration of the colonial market economy to the poorest and most remote areas of Ireland. Rural Irish-speakers encountered colonial power relations, the ideologies and practices of political economy and the English language as one package. Additionally, both the

in The end of Irish history?
Critical reflections on the Celtic Tiger

Sexual images and innuendo have become commonplace in contemporary advertising; they often fail to register in any meaningful way with the audience. This book examines the essentially racist stereotypes through which Irish people have conventionally been regarded have been increasingly challenged and even displaced perhaps by a sequence of rather more complimentary perspectives. The various developments that are signified within the figure of the Celtic Tiger might be considered to have radically altered the field of political possibility in Ireland. The enormous cuts in public expenditure that marked this period are held to have established a desirable, stable macroeconomic environment. The Celtic Tiger shows that one can use the rhetoric about 'social solidarity' while actually implementing policies which increase class polarisation. The book discusses the current hegemonic construction of Ireland as an open, cosmopolitan, multicultural, tourist-friendly society. The two central pieces of legislation which currently shape Irish immigration policy are the 1996 Refugee Act and the Immigration Bill of 1999. The book offers a critical examination of the realities of the Celtic Tiger for Irish women. Processes of nation state formation invariably invoke homogeneous narratives of ethnicity and national identity. To invoke a collective subject of contemporary Ireland rhetorically is to make such a strategic utopian political assumption. For the last few hundred years, the Gaeltacht has exemplified the crisis of Irish modernity. Culture becomes capital, and vice versa, while political action increasingly consists of the struggle to maintain democratic autonomy in the face of global market forces.

Familiarisation and estrangement in Seamus Heaney’s later poetry
Joanna Cowper

not only onto a Greek landscape, but also onto Harvard and the Bellaghy GAA Club; his travels towards Piedras Blancas open up vistas of the 1950s Gaeltacht; his experience of Belgrade is decoded in the context of remembered images of Ireland in years gone by. In these poems, Heaney affirms that the ostensibly new is rendered familiar through its relationship to that which is already assimilated. By relating recent trips to Europe to experiences that belong to different places and times, he examines the extent to which one can be simultaneously ‘here’ and ‘there

in Irish literature since 1990
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Representations of Irish political leaders in the ‘Haughey’ plays of Carr, Barry and Breen
Anthony Roche

and currently John O’Donoghue. The Ministry of Arts and Culture has picked up more portfolios along the way, incorporating the Islands and the Gaeltacht during de Valera’s period in office, and adding Sports under O’Donoghue. With each addition there has been a corresponding diminution of emphasis on the arts. When Ariel was premiered at the Abbey Theatre in October 2002, the closest anyone came to a one-on-one identification was to suggest some resemblance between Fermoy Fitzgerald and Michael D. Higgins. Both had been Ministers for Arts and Culture; both

in Irish literature since 1990
Open Access (free)
Modernisation via Europeanisation
Brigid Laffan

Department of Islands Agriculture and Food Justice, Equality and Law Reform the Environment and Local the Marine and Natural Resources Education Health and Children Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Sectoral ministries with Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment multiple EU responsibilities Department of Public Enterprise Department of Tourism, Sport and Recreation With the exception of the Department of Defence, all departments of state have been gradually brought within the ambit of the Union’s governance structures. The intensification of ‘Europeanisation’ is

in Fifteen into one?
The blows of County Clare
Jeremy MacClancy

standards from the late nineteenth century on. Even so, Clare never came to be considered an agriculturally rich county.2 Irish writers based in Dublin perceived yet further dimensions of the area. In the late nineteenth century, Clare’s gaeltachts (Gaelic-speaking areas), its traditional ways and backward economy helped make it a prime site for the high-priests of the Celtic Renaissance. Lady Augusta Gregory, nationalist and folklorist, held court for Yeats and others in her Clare house, Coole Castle, and the poet spent time doing a little fieldwork in the area, which he

in Alternative countrysides