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Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

informed contemplation on the political function of IHL and what we can expect from it. The Soldier, the Legal Expert and the Rescuer Let us begin with the first Geneva Convention, the starting point of contemporary IHL; it was signed on 22 August 1864 1 and did not even mention the word ‘humanitarian’. In ten articles occupying two pages, its subject (as reflected by its title) was ‘the amelioration of the condition of the wounded in armies in the field’. It can be summarised in just two

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
David Rieff

observe that the humanitarian world has never really known how to think about its own political role. The neutrality of the International Committee of the Red Cross, though not quite as complete as the organisation claims, is real enough in practice. But as the custodian of the Geneva Conventions, the ICRC has an international legal status that no other relief organisation can claim. Yes, major private voluntary relief groups have accepted various codes of conduct, but their adherence to these codes is ultimately voluntary. It remains the case that

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Legality and legitimacy
Dominic McGoldrick

Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory in the Former Yugoslavia since 1991.62 Its establishment was part of a wide range of international legal responses to the conflict and dissolution of Yugoslavia.63 A Commission of Experts had been established by the SC in 1992 to collect information and examine the evidence relating to grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia.64 A massive computer database had been established in the US. In its

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
The Tokyo trial of Japanese leaders, 1946–48
Peter Lowe

soldiers, were responsible for the fulfilment of the terms of the Geneva Convention, for the proper treatment of prisoners-of-war, etc. Shigemitsu, as Foreign Minister, had received from the Swiss all the reports of the Japanese ill-treatment of prisoners and had done nothing more than pass them on to the War Office ‘for comments’. The War Office very seldom bothered to comment and when they did their explanations were very lame. Shigemitsu showed no concern and, again, simply passed the War Office reports to the Swiss.48 At last, in the summer of 1948, the daily grind

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
A twenty-first century trial?
Dominic McGoldrick

was forcibly removed, deported, or killed in a number of regions, and public and private property was intentionally and wantonly destroyed or plundered. As with the Kosovo indictment, Milosevic’s alleged guilt was based on individual and superior criminal responsibility. During the relevant period, he had been President of the Republic of Serbia and as such exercised effective control or substantial influence over the other participants of the joint criminal enterprise.26 Thus, he was charged with nine counts of grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions (wilful

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Philip Lynch

would uphold Britain’s ‘proud tradition of offering sanctuary to those who are fleeing injustice and wrong’. But this tradition of hospitality was now at risk – not from racism or an unwillingness to accept genuine refugees in Britain, but from a flawed asylum regime. The international system for dealing with refugees put in place by the 1951 Geneva Convention was no longer working effectively in a world of mass emigration – a view shared by the government. Hague claimed that up to 80 per cent of those claiming asylum had manifestly unfounded cases but few were

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Open Access (free)
Rethinking anarchist strategies
James Bowen

in pragmatic terms, we have to take our victories and allies where we find them, be they in the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights, the Geneva Convention, trades union legislation or activity or among our friends and neighbours. The economic and political system that we oppose works on many different levels, and we therefore have to oppose it on these different levels. Burying our heads in the sands of ideological purity changes little and helps few, although it is understandable why many favour simplistic answers, since the complexity and

in Changing anarchism
Open Access (free)
Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
Michael McConnell

proportion to the actual threat. This notion was encouraged by Hitler, who ordered, due the nature of the partisan war, that the military and police forego adherence to the Geneva Convention.12 The correspondence regarding the anti-partisan war further criminalized the activities of the enemy. As Jonathan Gumz has pointed out in his work on the anti-partisan war in the Balkans, German military and police personnel often used technocratic language in order to distinguish their violence from the supposedly irrational forms of atrocity committed by the indigenous popu­ lation

in Destruction and human remains
Grassroots exceptionalism in humanitarian memoir
Emily Bauman

Memoir has for some time played a significant role in the expansion and interpretation of the humanitarian industry. It was Henri Dunant’s 1862 memoir A Memory of Solferino that made the case for the first global institutionalisation of humanitarian work in the ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross) and Geneva Convention, and Moritz Thomsen’s 1969 memoir Living Poor

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Challenges and technological solutions to the ­identification of individuals in mass grave scenarios in the modern context
Gillian Fowler and Tim Thompson

act took place. Massacres of innocent civilians and extrajudicial executions are a violation of the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I which govern the proper burial, identification, and registration of those killed in conflict.1 During an armed conflict perpetrators may attempt to hide their crimes by creating mass graves. Surviving family members can be left ignorant about the whereabouts of their loved ones and can only assume that they have been killed or are still being detained. Therefore, identifying victims of mass graves can bring

in Human remains and identification