Jaewoo Choo

2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 105 6 The geopolitics of Central Asian energy Jaewoo Choo This chapter assesses the rising geostrategic and geoeconomic importance of Central Asian oil and natural gas for China and the United States – the most transparent source of Sino-American conflict in this region. The initial rationale for Chinese engagement in Central Asia, despite the emergence of China as a net oil-importing nation in 1993, was not driven by the search for an alternative and secure source of oil and natural gas.1 Rather, Chinese policy reflected a

in Limiting institutions?
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

), The Modern/Colonial/Capitalist World-System in the Twentieth Century: Global Processes, Antisystemic Movements, and the Geopolitics of Knowledge ( Westport, CT : Praeger Publishers ), pp. xi – xxix . Ndlovu-Gatsheni , S. J. ( 2012 ), ‘ Coloniality of Power in Development Studies and the Impact of Global Imperial Designs on Africa ’, Australasian Review of African Studies , 33 : 2 , 48 – 73 . Ndlovu-Gatsheni , S. J. ( 2018 ), ‘ Racism and Blackism on a World Scale ’, in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Sovereignty, violence and revolution in the Middle East
Author:

In events that have since become known as the Arab Uprisings or Arab Revolutions, people across the Middle East took to the streets to express their anger and frustration at political climates, demanding political and economic reform. In a number of cases, protest movements were repressed, often violently, with devastating repercussions for human security and peace across the region.

While a number of scholars have sought to understand how the protests occurred, this book looks at sovereignty and the relationship between rulers and ruled to identify and understand both the roots of this anger but also the mechanisms through which regimes were able to withstand seemingly existential pressures and maintain power.

Open Access (free)
The struggle to shape the Middle East

Saudi Arabia and Iran: The struggle to shape the Middle East provides a detailed exploration of the rivalry between Riyadh and Tehran across the Middle East. As one of the most compelling rivalries in international politics, the Saudi–Iranian competition for regional influence has impacted on a number of different locales. After the onset of the Arab Uprisings and the fragmentation of regime–society relations, communal relations have continued to degenerate, as societal actors retreat into sub-state identities, whilst difference becomes increasingly violent, spilling out beyond state borders. The power of religion – and the trans-state nature of religious linkages – thus provides the means for actors, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to exert influence over a number of groups across the region. Given these issues, the contributions to this volume, and the collection as a whole, have two main aims: firstly, to explore the nature of the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran within the contemporary Middle East; and secondly, to consider the impact of this rivalry upon regional and domestic politics across the Middle East. This volume examines how the rivalry is perceived in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, as well as in the contestation over religious legitimacy. It also offers in-depth explorations of the impact of this rivalry upon five regional states: Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Lebanon and Yemen, all sites of contestation between Riyadh and Tehran, albeit in different guises. In doing so, it highlights how the rivalry is shaped by the contingencies of time and space.

Open Access (free)
Batman Saves the Congo: How Celebrities Disrupt the Politics of Development
Alexandra Cosima Budabin
and
Lisa Ann Richey

historical, geographical and cultural context. And overall, rather than disrupting existing relations of dominance and inequality, aid works to consolidate and reproduce them. In Batman’s attempts to save the Congo we can very clearly see the relevance of work in political geography. This includes the role of ‘hotel geopolitics’ ( Fregonese and Ramadan, 2015 ), where existing international tourist and transport infrastructures alongside unequal mobility regimes shape the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

, North Korea and various other countries today use ‘Westphalian diplomacy’ and the ‘geopolitics of nations’ – European inventions – to question the hierarchy of this European system led by the US. From our point of view, it was exactly this convergence and normative homogenisation in the inter-state system, on the one hand, and the increasing power of states that question American exceptionality and centrality using rules authored by the US itself, on the other, that began to threaten the global power of the US. This obliged the US to make an

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

geopolitics. In other words, even if humanitarian agencies themselves value all lives equally, their actions are shaped by a world which does not. Additional Explanations Greater obligations and opportunities with respect to staff security as compared with the wider civilian population may explain the harder security measures and more frequent advocacy on behalf of aid workers, but analysis of policy guidance and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Klaus Neumann

. Claußen , S. ( 2015 ), Die Seenotretter: 150 Jahre DGzRS ( Erfurt : Sutton Verlag ). Cuttitta , P. ( 2018 ), ‘Repoliticization through Search and Rescue? Humanitarian NGOs and Migration Management in the Central Mediterranean ’, Geopolitics , 23 : 3 , 632 – 60 . del Valle , H. ( 2016 ), ‘ Search and Rescue in the Mediterranean Sea: Negotiating Political Differences ’, Refugee Survey Quarterly , 35 : 2 , 22 – 40 . Di Cesare , D. ( 2019 ), ‘ Eine Antigone unserer Zeit ’, Zeit 4 July , www.zeit.de/2019/28/carola

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Catherine Baker

it by the 1930s; US racialised imaginaries of African primitivity then, later, African-American physicality, musicality and criminality; and Soviet imaginaries of state socialist Europe at the vanguard of a new humanitarian civilising mission to develop and modernise postcolonial Africa all contributing (Todorova 2006 ). Equivalent sources for the Yugoslav region's translations of ‘race’ would be similar but – because of its pre-unification history as well as the geopolitics of socialist Non-Alignment – not the same. Yugoslavia's participation

in Race and the Yugoslav region
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia
Sean Kay

general geopolitical trends in the region. Consequently, as the following discussion shows, the institutional forms that reflect hegemonic stability, regional balancing and global balancing are key to understanding the geopolitical trend-lines of Eurasia. As this chapter illustrates, many of the core components are in place for a general regional concert system in Eurasia. Whether that concert system can successfully be translated into a new cooperative security arrangement is a critical policy and theoretical question confronting Eurasian security. Geopolitics and the

in Limiting institutions?