The geopolitics of
Central Asian energy
This chapter assesses the rising geostrategic and geoeconomic importance of
Central Asian oil and natural gas for China and the United States – the most
transparent source of Sino-American conflict in this region. The initial
rationale for Chinese engagement in Central Asia, despite the emergence of
China as a net oil-importing nation in 1993, was not driven by the search for
an alternative and secure source of oil and natural gas.1 Rather, Chinese
policy reflected a
), The Modern/Colonial/Capitalist
World-System in the Twentieth Century: Global Processes, Antisystemic Movements, and the
Geopolitics of Knowledge ( Westport, CT :
Praeger Publishers ), pp.
xi – xxix .
Ndlovu-Gatsheni , S.
J. ( 2012 ),
‘ Coloniality of Power in Development Studies and the Impact of Global
Imperial Designs on Africa ’, Australasian Review of African
Studies , 33 : 2 ,
48 – 73 .
Ndlovu-Gatsheni , S.
J. ( 2018 ),
‘ Racism and Blackism on a World Scale ’, in
In events that have since become known as the Arab Uprisings or Arab Revolutions,
people across the Middle East took to the streets to express their anger and
frustration at political climates, demanding political and economic reform. In a
number of cases, protest movements were repressed, often violently, with
devastating repercussions for human security and peace across the
region. While a number of scholars have sought to understand how the
protests occurred, this book looks at sovereignty and the relationship between
rulers and ruled to identify and understand both the roots of this anger but
also the mechanisms through which regimes were able to withstand seemingly
existential pressures and maintain power.
Saudi Arabia and Iran: The struggle to shape the Middle East provides a detailed exploration of the rivalry between Riyadh and Tehran across the Middle East. As one of the most compelling rivalries in international politics, the Saudi–Iranian competition for regional influence has impacted on a number of different locales. After the onset of the Arab Uprisings and the fragmentation of regime–society relations, communal relations have continued to degenerate, as societal actors retreat into sub-state identities, whilst difference becomes increasingly violent, spilling out beyond state borders. The power of religion – and the trans-state nature of religious linkages – thus provides the means for actors, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to exert influence over a number of groups across the region. Given these issues, the contributions to this volume, and the collection as a whole, have two main aims: firstly, to explore the nature of the rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran within the contemporary Middle East; and secondly, to consider the impact of this rivalry upon regional and domestic politics across the Middle East. This volume examines how the rivalry is perceived in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, as well as in the contestation over religious legitimacy. It also offers in-depth explorations of the impact of this rivalry upon five regional states: Iraq, Syria, Bahrain, Lebanon and Yemen, all sites of contestation between Riyadh and Tehran, albeit in different guises. In doing so, it highlights how the rivalry is shaped by the contingencies of time and space.
Batman Saves the Congo: How Celebrities Disrupt the Politics of
Alexandra Cosima Budabin
Lisa Ann Richey
historical, geographical and cultural context. And overall, rather than disrupting
existing relations of dominance and inequality, aid works to consolidate and
reproduce them. In Batman’s attempts to save the Congo we can very clearly
see the relevance of work in political geography. This includes the role of
‘hotel geopolitics’ ( Fregonese and
Ramadan, 2015 ), where existing international tourist and transport
infrastructures alongside unequal mobility regimes shape the
Korea and various other countries today use ‘Westphalian diplomacy’ and the
‘geopolitics of nations’ – European inventions – to question the
hierarchy of this European system led by the US.
From our point of view, it was exactly this convergence and normative homogenisation in the
inter-state system, on the one hand, and the increasing power of states that question American
exceptionality and centrality using rules authored by the US itself, on the other, that began to
threaten the global power of the US. This obliged the US to make an
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian
geopolitics. In other words, even if
humanitarian agencies themselves value all lives equally, their actions are
shaped by a world which does not.
Greater obligations and opportunities with respect to staff security as compared
with the wider civilian population may explain the harder security measures and
more frequent advocacy on behalf of aid workers, but analysis of policy guidance
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
Claußen , S. ( 2015 ), Die Seenotretter: 150 Jahre DGzRS ( Erfurt : Sutton Verlag ).
Cuttitta , P. ( 2018 ),
‘Repoliticization through Search and Rescue? Humanitarian NGOs and Migration Management in the Central Mediterranean ’, Geopolitics , 23 : 3 , 632 – 60 .
del Valle , H. ( 2016 ), ‘ Search and Rescue in the Mediterranean Sea: Negotiating Political Differences ’, Refugee Survey Quarterly , 35 : 2 , 22 – 40 .
Di Cesare , D. ( 2019 ), ‘ Eine Antigone unserer Zeit ’, Zeit
4 July , www.zeit.de/2019/28/carola
it by the 1930s; US racialised imaginaries of African primitivity then, later, African-American physicality, musicality and criminality; and Soviet imaginaries of state socialist Europe at the vanguard of a new humanitarian civilising mission to develop and modernise postcolonial Africa all contributing (Todorova 2006 ). Equivalent sources for the Yugoslav region's translations of ‘race’ would be similar but – because of its pre-unification history as well as the geopolitics of socialist Non-Alignment – not the same.
general geopolitical trends in the
region. Consequently, as the following discussion shows, the institutional
forms that reflect hegemonic stability, regional balancing and global balancing are key to understanding the geopolitical trend-lines of Eurasia. As this
chapter illustrates, many of the core components are in place for a general
regional concert system in Eurasia. Whether that concert system can
successfully be translated into a new cooperative security arrangement is a
critical policy and theoretical question confronting Eurasian security.
Geopolitics and the