Jaewoo Choo

2504Chap6 7/4/03 12:40 pm Page 105 6 The geopolitics of Central Asian energy Jaewoo Choo This chapter assesses the rising geostrategic and geoeconomic importance of Central Asian oil and natural gas for China and the United States – the most transparent source of Sino-American conflict in this region. The initial rationale for Chinese engagement in Central Asia, despite the emergence of China as a net oil-importing nation in 1993, was not driven by the search for an alternative and secure source of oil and natural gas.1 Rather, Chinese policy reflected a

in Limiting institutions?
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

Geopolitics of Knowledge ( Westport, CT : Praeger Publishers ), pp. xi – xxix . Ndlovu-Gatsheni , S. J. ( 2012 ), ‘ Coloniality of Power in Development Studies and the Impact of Global Imperial Designs on Africa ’, Australasian Review of African Studies , 33 : 2 , 48 – 73 . Ndlovu-Gatsheni , S. J. ( 2018 ), ‘ Racism and Blackism on a World Scale ’, in Rutazibwa , O. U. and Shilliam , R. (eds), Routledge Handbook of Postcolonial Politics ( London : Routledge ), pp. 72 – 86

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
José Luís Fiori

institutions of the post-war liberal order. But, at the same time, the expansion of American power was itself decisive in the (military) resurgence of Russia and the economic growth of China – two powers that began to use the very rules and institutions of liberal order to challenge American hegemony and destabilise the notion of unipolarity. And Iran, Turkey, North Korea and various other countries today use ‘Westphalian diplomacy’ and the ‘geopolitics of nations’ – European inventions – to question the hierarchy of this European system led by the US. From

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

more international attention and pressure on the perpetrators of violence than public criticism in response to attacks on other civilians. To the extent that differences in political constraints and opportunities account for the differences between staff-security and civilian-protection strategies, the distinction between them can be understood as driven by a differential valuing of lives at the level of geopolitics. In other words, even if

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Sovereignty, violence and revolution in the Middle East
Author: Simon Mabon

In events that have since become known as the Arab Uprisings or Arab Revolutions, people across the Middle East took to the streets to express their anger and frustration at political climates, demanding political and economic reform. In a number of cases, protest movements were repressed, often violently, with devastating repercussions for human security and peace across the region.

While a number of scholars have sought to understand how the protests occurred, this book looks at sovereignty and the relationship between rulers and ruled to identify and understand both the roots of this anger but also the mechanisms through which regimes were able to withstand seemingly existential pressures and maintain power.

Catherine Baker

it by the 1930s; US racialised imaginaries of African primitivity then, later, African-American physicality, musicality and criminality; and Soviet imaginaries of state socialist Europe at the vanguard of a new humanitarian civilising mission to develop and modernise postcolonial Africa all contributing (Todorova 2006 ). Equivalent sources for the Yugoslav region's translations of ‘race’ would be similar but – because of its pre-unification history as well as the geopolitics of socialist Non-Alignment – not the same. Yugoslavia's participation

in Race and the Yugoslav region
The dynamics of multilateralism in Eurasia
Sean Kay

general geopolitical trends in the region. Consequently, as the following discussion shows, the institutional forms that reflect hegemonic stability, regional balancing and global balancing are key to understanding the geopolitical trend-lines of Eurasia. As this chapter illustrates, many of the core components are in place for a general regional concert system in Eurasia. Whether that concert system can successfully be translated into a new cooperative security arrangement is a critical policy and theoretical question confronting Eurasian security. Geopolitics and the

in Limiting institutions?
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

). It is not surprising that the history of Classical archaeology maps onto geopolitics. After all, with their shared claims to universality, Classics and empire have much in common (Porter, 2006; Bradley, 2010); Classical materials – like so many other desirable goods – gravitate toward power. Of course, Classics has never been the sole provenance of the powerful. Even the geopolitically ‘marginal’ have sought their share of Classical culture (see Stephens and Vasunia, 2010), to say nothing of so-called ‘source’ nations such as Greece and Italy (see Hamilakis, 2007

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
The challenge of Eurasian security governance

Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.

Open Access (free)
The United States in the Asia and Indo-Pacifics
Inderjeet Parmar

What are President Obama’s chief legacies across Asia and the Pacific, the new fulcrum of world economics and geopolitics? Was there a distinctive underlying philosophy and strategy for the region which guided Obama’s thinking and policies, such as ‘pragmatic realism’, hegemonic ordering/liberal internationalism, or hawkish humanitarianism? Since Obama, what has President Donald Trump’s ‘principled realism’ meant in practice? How far has Trump progressed in challenging or disrupting Obama’s strategy to ‘pivot to Asia’? What differences can we discern in the declared or effective US strategy towards Asia and to what extent has it radically shifted or displaced Obama-era legacies? Finally, what might be the longer-term consequences, both for American power and the Asian region, of the strategies pursued by the Trump administration and its predecessors? Though we appear to be at a key historical moment, this is hardly the first time American elites have faced uncertainty over grand strategy in broad terms or in the context of specific areas of the world. Yet the stakes now seem higher, as the spectre of economic and military conflicts hangs over the Asia, and broader Indo-, Pacific regions.

in The United States in the Indo-Pacific