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Ford Madox Ford, the novel and the Great War
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This book is about Ford Madox Ford, a hero of the modernist literary revolution. Ford is a fascinating and fundamental figure of the time; not only because, as a friend and critic of Ezra Pound and Joseph Conrad, editor of the English Review and author of The Good Soldier, he shaped the development of literary modernism. But, as the grandson of Ford Madox Brown and son of a German music critic, he also manifested formative links with mainland European culture and the visual arts. In Ford there is the chance to explore continuity in artistic life at the turn of the last century, as well as the more commonly identified pattern of crisis in the time. The argument throughout the book is that modernism possesses more than one face. Setting Ford in his cultural and historical context, the opening chapter debates the concept of fragmentation in modernism; later chapters discuss the notion of the personal narrative, and war writing. Ford's literary technique is studied comparatively and plot summaries of his major books (The Good Soldier and Parade's End) are provided, as is a brief biography.

Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

-European world that both he, as a person, and the settings in which he suffers, as settings, seem to me to be very real. When you have finished the book you, too, will have suffered and had your own emotions in the rue de la Paix.5 In order to really know one’s fictional – and actual – surroundings, one must be made to suffer by them (perhaps this is why Dowell needs to return to places and parts of his story in The Good Soldier – his ignorance protects him from suffering). Suffering renders the relationship Lawrence would desire: the trembling of emotion in the response of

in Fragmenting modernism
Sara Haslam

to Ford’s representation of heaven in the poem is the reflecting, ‘lonely old moon’, which seems to threaten its existence. As the chapter proceeds, the moon’s watchfulness is 158 Fragmenting modernism reconstructed as part of Ford’s fantastical solution to the fragmenting experience of the divided self. The Young Lovell The Young Lovell was written and published in 1913; it was the novel before The Good Soldier. Though Saunders writes that both these texts are ‘studies of the power of desire to enrapture and to endanger and of the conflicts between sexuality

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

of the English Review, author of The Good Soldier and transformer of Ezra Pound’s verse, he performed a vital part. Indeed, Max Saunders writes in his magisterial biography of Ford that ‘the period of literary modernism is “the Ford era” as much as it is Pound’s, or T. S. Eliot’s, or Joyce’s’; Ford was ‘at the centre of the three most innovative groups of writers this century’.4 In addition, the language of decline, collapse and fragmentation is commonly applied by historical analysts to events and developments of the early twentieth century. These were the years

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

faintest of smiles, the simplest of words, the slightest gesture’, and whilst the comparison with James is well-judged, Mizener misses the edge to this text, one that raises its game and enables comparison of its drama with that of The Good Soldier and Parade’s End.1 Freud has much to say of the active implications of ‘civilized society’. This society is one that demands good conduct and does not trouble itself about the instinctual basis of this conduct, [and] has thus won over to obedience a great many people who are not in this following their own natures. Encouraged

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

). Far from asking the reader to view the text from a complex set of perspectives, as in The Good Soldier, Ford asks instead for sympathy and sensitivity, to fantastical, Pre-Raphaelite-laced, impressions. The Owl is loyal and kindly, powerful and wise, and is Brown’s 128 Fragmenting modernism representative in Ford’s imaginative universe. Madox Brown always held such a position, thus providing Ford with one of the ‘static verities’ of his life.29 The book was published in 1891, following Brown’s persuasions at T. Fisher Unwin via Edward Garnett. It thus owes its

in Fragmenting modernism
Sara Haslam

drives him into, is a thinly disguised parallel to the fact that he can neither understand nor harness twentieth-century sexual demands and existence (The Good Soldier, p. 39).35 Ford detailed his critical thinking about the image of the train in The Soul of London, published in 1905. Here he describes the rushing days, the endless meaningless activity of the social set, acknowledging eventually that ‘each of these things sinks back into the mere background of your you. You are, on the relentless current of your life, whirled past them as, in a train, you are whirled

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Sara Haslam

canvasses, more brutal and more concrete than Ford’s example. Sight and madness The fragmentary relationship between sight and madness in The Good Soldier is of critical interest to Max Saunders (see my discussion in Chapter 2): ‘Leonora is fighting to suppress that maddening vision of the truth [. . .]. When inexperienced Nancy sees what is happening, she does go mad’.44 Nancy ‘sees’ figuratively due to what she ‘sees’ 96 Fragmenting modernism literally, the story of the Brand divorce and adultery in the newspaper (The Good Soldier, p. 140). For Florence, sight means

in Fragmenting modernism
Open Access (free)
Francis Bacon’s History of the Reign of King Henry VII
Ben Dew

money was clearly necessary for a prince or republic to enter into a war, it was ‘good soldiers’ who were key, as ‘gold is an insufficient means of finding good soldiers, but good soldiers are a more than sufficient means of finding gold’.106 These good soldiers, he maintained, were generally infantrymen not cavalrymen, and always free citizens driven by a desire for glory rather than mercenaries who fought for a ‘bit of salary’.107 Underpinning such comments were a series of core assumptions. Machiavelli associated wealth and the desire for wealth with selfishness

in Commerce, finance and statecraft
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Anglophobia in Fascist Italy traces the roots of Fascist Anglophobia from the Great War and through the subsequent peace treaties and its development during the twenty years of Mussolini’s regime. Initially, Britain was seen by many Italians as a ‘false friend’ who was also the main obstacle to Italy’s foreign policy aspirations, a view embraced by Mussolini and his movement. While at times dormant, this Anglophobic sentiment did not disappear in the years that followed, and was later rekindled during the Ethiopian War. The peculiarly Fascist contribution to the assessment of Britain was ideological. From the mid-1920s, the regime’s intellectuals saw Fascism as the answer to a crisis in the Western world and as irredeemably opposed to Western civilisation of the sort exemplified by Britain. Britain was described as having failed the ‘problem of labour’, and Fascism framed as a salvation ideology, which nations would either embrace or face decay. The perception of Britain as a decaying and feeble nation increased after the Great Depression. The consequence of this was a consistent underrating of British power and resolve to resist Italian ambitions. An analysis of popular reception of the Fascist discourse shows that the tendency to underrate Britain had permeated large sectors of the Italian people, and that public opinion was more hostile to Britain than previously thought. Indeed, in some quarters hatred towards the British lasted until the end of the Second World War, in both occupied and liberated Italy.