On the return of the Jewish question

Universalism has acted as a stimulus for Jewish emancipation, that is, for civil, political and social inclusion. It has also been a source of anti-Jewish prejudice up to and beyond the classic antisemitism of the modern period. While the experience of Jews is by no means unique in this respect, one of the peculiarities of the 'anti-Judaic' tradition has been to represent Jews in some important regard as the 'other' of the universal: as the personification either of a particularism opposed to the universal, or of a false universalism concealing Jewish self-interest. The former contrasts the particularism of the Jews to the universality of bourgeois civil society. The latter contrasts the bad universalism of the 'rootless cosmopolitan Jew' to the good universalism of whatever universal is advanced: nation, race or class. This book explores debates over Jewish emancipation within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, contrasting the work of two leading protagonists of Jewish emancipation: Christian von Dohm and Moses Mendelssohn. It discusses the emancipatory power of Karl Marx's critique of Bruno Bauer's opposition to Jewish emancipation and endorsement of The Jewish Question. Marxist debates over the growth of anti-Semitism; Hannah Arendt's critique of three types of Jewish responsiveness--assimilationism, Zionism and cosmopolitanism-- to anti-Semitism; and the endeavours of a leading postwar critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas are also discussed. Finally, the book focuses its critique on left antizionists who threaten to reinstate the Jewish question when they identify Israel and Zionism as the enemies of universalism.

Jürgen Habermas and the European left
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

5 The Jewish question after the Holocaust: Jürgen Habermas and the European left I have, of course, long since abandoned my anti-Zionism, which was based on a confidence in the European labour movement, or, more broadly, in European society and civilisation, which that society and civilisation have not justified. If, instead of arguing against Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s I had urged European

in Antisemitism and the left
Volker M. Heins

unfortunately been dissolved by continental political philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas and Axel Honneth who reject all group-based understandings of recognition which cannot be reduced to aspirations for individual freedom within a given state or society. Yet this individualist bias has proven to be rather unproductive in the field of international political theory. I therefore suggest

in Recognition and Global Politics
Open Access (free)
From critical theory to technical politics
Graeme Kirkpatrick

of Marcuse’s and probably more conservative. Critical theory in Europe has moved on since Adorno and Marcuse, and second- and third-generation Frankfurt theorists have repudiated their forebears on a number of important points. Of obvious importance here is the work of Jürgen Habermas, 5 who has penned important critiques of both Adorno and Marcuse, and who has developed a very different version of critical theory based on theoretical foundations that have more in common with pragmatism than with the Marxist dialectic. His work also draws more heavily on ideas

in Technical politics
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Meanings, Limits, Manifestations
Patrick Hayden and Kate Schick

recognition that finds its satisfaction only in the mutuality of reciprocated desire – driving a dialectical process whose future completion will signal the end of history. More recently, the debate around recognition gained new life due largely to the work of philosophers such as Charles Taylor, Jürgen Habermas, Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser, who reintroduced consideration of recognition dynamics into

in Recognition and Global Politics
Ciarán O’Kelly

inclusive love of ‘our’ liberty. Similarly, Jürgen Habermas argues in favour of ‘constitutional patriotism’, which is based on his sophisticated sociological theory, as presented in his two-volume The Theory of Communicative Action . 26 Habermas argues that, over time, social discourses become progressively more rational through the ‘unforced force’ of the better argument. Societal action rationalises as a result of open discourse

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Geoffrey Wood

theorists (1968–89) Althusser, Poulantzas Foucault, Deleuze, Guattari Giddens, Habermas Nozick SOCIOLOGY 121 As Crouch (1979) notes, social theory in the 1970s accorded increasing attention to the role of the state. Within Europe, much of this centred on the Marxist tradition (Table 8.2, column 1). However, within the United States, while political science accorded little attention to developing a systematic social theory of the state, a few scholars such as Robert Dahl explored the issue of community power. Other leading political scientists argued that democratic

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

. When the university in Heidelberg celebrated its 600-year anniversary in 1986, a few of post-war Germany’s most prominent academics were asked to deliver an address under the heading ‘Die Idee der Universität’, a tribute to Heidelberg Professor Karl Jaspers. Several of the contributors – Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jürgen Habermas, Wolf Lepenies, Manfred Eigen – started out from the German university tradition.3 It was Gadamer who adopted Humboldt’s model most unconditionally. He described how the Prussian state had existed in darkness at the beginning of the nineteenth

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

: Radikalkonservatism och kritisk teori: Gehlen – Schelsky – Habermas – Honneth – Joas (Göteborg, 2002); Ralf Dahrendorf, Über Grenzen: Lebenserinnerungen (Munich, 2002), p. 179; Gerhard Schäfer, ‘Der Nationalsozialismus und die soziologischen Akteure der Nachkriegszeit: Am Beispiel Helmut Schelskys und Ralf Dahrendorfs’, in Soziologie und Nationalsozialismus: Positionen, Debatten, Perspektiven, ed. by Michaela Christ & Maja Suderland (Berlin, 2014). 150 Humboldt and the modern German university During the 1960s Schelsky became increasingly involved with questions regarding the

in Humboldt and the modern German university