On the return of the Jewish question

Universalism has acted as a stimulus for Jewish emancipation, that is, for civil, political and social inclusion. It has also been a source of anti-Jewish prejudice up to and beyond the classic antisemitism of the modern period. While the experience of Jews is by no means unique in this respect, one of the peculiarities of the 'anti-Judaic' tradition has been to represent Jews in some important regard as the 'other' of the universal: as the personification either of a particularism opposed to the universal, or of a false universalism concealing Jewish self-interest. The former contrasts the particularism of the Jews to the universality of bourgeois civil society. The latter contrasts the bad universalism of the 'rootless cosmopolitan Jew' to the good universalism of whatever universal is advanced: nation, race or class. This book explores debates over Jewish emancipation within the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, contrasting the work of two leading protagonists of Jewish emancipation: Christian von Dohm and Moses Mendelssohn. It discusses the emancipatory power of Karl Marx's critique of Bruno Bauer's opposition to Jewish emancipation and endorsement of The Jewish Question. Marxist debates over the growth of anti-Semitism; Hannah Arendt's critique of three types of Jewish responsiveness--assimilationism, Zionism and cosmopolitanism-- to anti-Semitism; and the endeavours of a leading postwar critical theorist, Jurgen Habermas are also discussed. Finally, the book focuses its critique on left antizionists who threaten to reinstate the Jewish question when they identify Israel and Zionism as the enemies of universalism.

Jürgen Habermas and the European left

5 The Jewish question after the Holocaust: Jürgen Habermas and the European left I have, of course, long since abandoned my anti-Zionism, which was based on a confidence in the European labour movement, or, more broadly, in European society and civilisation, which that society and civilisation have not justified. If, instead of arguing against Zionism in the 1920s and 1930s I had urged European

in Antisemitism and the left

unfortunately been dissolved by continental political philosophers such as Jürgen Habermas and Axel Honneth who reject all group-based understandings of recognition which cannot be reduced to aspirations for individual freedom within a given state or society. Yet this individualist bias has proven to be rather unproductive in the field of international political theory. I therefore suggest

in Recognition and Global Politics
Meanings, Limits, Manifestations

recognition that finds its satisfaction only in the mutuality of reciprocated desire – driving a dialectical process whose future completion will signal the end of history. More recently, the debate around recognition gained new life due largely to the work of philosophers such as Charles Taylor, Jürgen Habermas, Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser, who reintroduced consideration of recognition dynamics into

in Recognition and Global Politics

inclusive love of ‘our’ liberty. Similarly, Jürgen Habermas argues in favour of ‘constitutional patriotism’, which is based on his sophisticated sociological theory, as presented in his two-volume The Theory of Communicative Action . 26 Habermas argues that, over time, social discourses become progressively more rational through the ‘unforced force’ of the better argument. Societal action rationalises as a result of open discourse

in Political concepts
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theorists (1968–89) Althusser, Poulantzas Foucault, Deleuze, Guattari Giddens, Habermas Nozick SOCIOLOGY 121 As Crouch (1979) notes, social theory in the 1970s accorded increasing attention to the role of the state. Within Europe, much of this centred on the Marxist tradition (Table 8.2, column 1). However, within the United States, while political science accorded little attention to developing a systematic social theory of the state, a few scholars such as Robert Dahl explored the issue of community power. Other leading political scientists argued that democratic

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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. When the university in Heidelberg celebrated its 600-year anniversary in 1986, a few of post-war Germany’s most prominent academics were asked to deliver an address under the heading ‘Die Idee der Universität’, a tribute to Heidelberg Professor Karl Jaspers. Several of the contributors – Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jürgen Habermas, Wolf Lepenies, Manfred Eigen – started out from the German university tradition.3 It was Gadamer who adopted Humboldt’s model most unconditionally. He described how the Prussian state had existed in darkness at the beginning of the nineteenth

in Humboldt and the modern German university
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: Radikalkonservatism och kritisk teori: Gehlen – Schelsky – Habermas – Honneth – Joas (Göteborg, 2002); Ralf Dahrendorf, Über Grenzen: Lebenserinnerungen (Munich, 2002), p. 179; Gerhard Schäfer, ‘Der Nationalsozialismus und die soziologischen Akteure der Nachkriegszeit: Am Beispiel Helmut Schelskys und Ralf Dahrendorfs’, in Soziologie und Nationalsozialismus: Positionen, Debatten, Perspektiven, ed. by Michaela Christ & Maja Suderland (Berlin, 2014). 150 Humboldt and the modern German university During the 1960s Schelsky became increasingly involved with questions regarding the

in Humboldt and the modern German university
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The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art

philosophy is to show that there is a wider development of rationality in modernity, evident, for example, in things which have become impossible to justify, like slavery and the oppression of women. The impossibility of now finding an intersubjective justification for such things is the final court of appeal, but this court does not have transcendent authority, and its justifications can always be revised in terms of a better, more inclusive, narrative of legitimation. Habermas has objected to this deflationary account of Hegel by pointing out that Even from the point of view

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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Art and interpretation

encountered in the early Romantics, Schelling and Hegel with sustained attention to the role of language in philosophy. Most people are aware that Schleiermacher formulated the first modern account of hermeneutics, but too few people seem aware that this was only part of a wider philosophical project, some of which has now turned out to prefigure central ideas of key thinkers in contemporary philosophy, such as Brandom, Davidson, Gadamer, Habermas, McDowell and Rorty. The appearance of Gadamer in this list might appear surprising, given his critical account of Schleiermacher

in Aesthetics and subjectivity