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An intellectual history
Author: Johan Östling

In the twenty-first century, intense debates concerning the university have flared up in Germany. An underlying factor is the general feeling that the country's once so excellent universities have been irredeemably left behind. This book anchors the current debate about the university in the past by exploring the history and varying meanings of the tradition of Wilhelm von Humboldt. It first provides a history of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the history and content of the Humboldtian tradition. Humboldt was involved in Greek antiquity, theory of education, Prussian educational system, and comparative linguistics. If, in spite of this versatility, a comprehensive idea, his Lebensthema, is to be found, it would have to be human beings and their Education. The book discusses the contributions of Adolf von Harnack and Eduard Spranger who emphasised Humboldt as a prominent figure in German university history. It focuses on three of the most influential figures in the post-war debate on the university: philosopher Karl Jaspers, historian Gerhard Ritter, and Germanic philologist Werner Richter. The 150th anniversary celebrations of the university in 1960 saw the eastern Berlin academia claiming to be the bearers of the true Humboldtian spirit and the west demonstrating itself as taking over Humboldt's original idea. The years following 2000 saw most European countries realising university reforms without any notable opposition, but in Germany the Bologna process gave rise to heated discussions in the public sphere.

Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

the contributor sympathised with him or not. Debating tradition In 1960, the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin celebrated its 150-year anniversary. In the years leading up to it, several university jubilees 130  Hacke, Philosophie der Bürgerlichkeit. 131  Nitsch et al., Hochschule in der Demokratie, p. 292. Tradition under debate 193 had been celebrated in the GDR – in Greifswald in 1956, in Jena in 1958, and in Leipzig in 1959. They had, in various ways, taken the form of celebrations of the new Socialist university; but they had also triggered conflicts between

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

bicentenary of Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin in 2010, a new history was written. The six volumes of this history, which were published in 2010–2012 under the joint title Geschichte der Universität 28 Humboldt and the modern German university thirty-five universities in the German region, almost half of whose students were registered at one of the big four (Halle, Göttingen, Jena, and Leipzig). A quarter of a century later, only sixteen universities remained; the others had been shut down or been forced to close in the aftermath of war and invasion. In addition, in 1807

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

den Linden after Wilhelm and/or Alexander von Humboldt. Even so, it was not until February 1949 that the new official name became Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, after both Humboldt brothers. During the intervening period the university had been transformed in a Communist direction, and the climate had become significantly harsher. In response to that development, oppositional students and teachers established a new university in the American sector in 1948. Through their choice of name, Freie Universität (‘the free university’), they wished to safeguard academic

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

. 9 For information regarding the close relationship between Kitasato and Koch, see Mariko Ogawa, ‘Robert Koch's 74 Days in Japan’, Kleine Reihe 27 (Mori Ogai-Gendenkstätte der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 2003). http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/series/kleine-reihe/27/PDF/27.pdf#search='shrine+kitasato+koch’ (accessed 25 February 2014

in The politics of vaccination