Bonnie Evans

child ‘maladjustment’. New models of child development built around the new autism concept would increasingly be used to present alternatives to this social model and to develop a new model of child development and the formation of relationships in children that supported new government policies aimed at correcting individual impairments rather than imposing an idealistic model

in The metamorphosis of autism
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

3 SYSTEMS OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR IMPAIRED MINERS AND THEIR FAMILIES When a working miner met with an injury or contracted a disease, perhaps the most pressing concern was how to survive the financial consequences. Impairment often necessitated a period of time away from work, or possibly the end of working life altogether. The loss of a weekly wage meant that the miner needed to draw upon one or more among a range of different sources of assistance. This chapter examines the various, changing ways that financial welfare was available in the late nineteenth

in Disability in industrial Britain
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

Borno, Yobe and Adamawa in 2017: The [linguistic] difficulties described affect both operational effectiveness and accountability, from the inclusiveness of needs assessments and feedback mechanisms to the provision of services and the implementation of behavior change campaigns. Confidentiality and conflict-sensitivity are impaired when not everyone can speak for themselves. Organizations were also concerned that the language barriers are impeding

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

invest in communal reciprocity? Relentless hard choices ‘in effect tax an individual’s bandwidth, or mental resources. This cognitive tax, in turn, can lead to economic decisions that perpetuate poverty ( ibid .: 81, emphasis added). As off-grid environments, slums typically lack regular water, electricity, sanitation and other infrastructural services. This absence also increases the cognitive levy. A high mental tax creates poor frames of thought and makes for impaired decision making. For the World Bank, thinking has become a calculative

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A cultural and literary history of impairment in the coal industry, 1880–1948

Coalmining was a notoriously dangerous industry and many of its workers experienced injury and disease. However, the experiences of the many disabled people within Britain’s most dangerous industry have gone largely unrecognised by historians. This book examines the British coal industry through the lens of disability, using an interdisciplinary approach to examine the lives of disabled miners and their families.

The book considers the coal industry at a time when it was one of Britain’s most important industries, and follows it through a period of growth up to the First World War, through strikes, depression and wartime, and into an era of decline. During this time, the statutory provision for disabled people changed considerably, most notably with the first programme of state compensation for workplace injury. And yet disabled people remained a constant presence in the industry as many disabled miners continued their jobs or took up ‘light work’. The burgeoning coalfields literature used images of disability on a frequent basis and disabled characters were used to represent the human toll of the industry.

A diverse range of sources are used to examine the economic, social, political and cultural impact of disability in the coal industry, looking beyond formal coal company and union records to include autobiographies, novels and oral testimony. It argues that, far from being excluded entirely from British industry, disability and disabled people were central to its development. The book will appeal to students and academics interested in disability history, disability studies, social and cultural history, and representations of disability in literature.

A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

all to see in coal communities in the maimed bodies of survivors. While walking down a busy street in mid-century Merthyr Tydfil, the Morning Chronicle’s correspondent observed that there were ‘more men with wooden legs than are to be found in any town in the kingdom having four times its population’ – a consequence of the great ‘number of accidents in the works below and above ground resulting in amputation’.9 How were people with impairments viewed in coalfield communities; how did they regard themselves; and what social roles did they play? This chapter examines

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Open Access (free)
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

’. ‘A great many are occasionally disabled who are never heard of,’ he noted, and were subsequently forced into dependency on poor relief ‘in consequence of injuries that no one ever hears of.’5 This book examines the lives and experiences of these people, men like James Jackson, who, until recently, were ‘never heard of’ in histories of industrialisation – the scarred, the mutilated, the ‘distorted’ and the impaired. The process of industrial growth in Britain after 1700, which gathered pace from the late eighteenth century, orchestrated changes in professional

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Open Access (free)
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin and Steven Thompson

industry posed the same variety or severity of risks to its workers or generated as large a number of disabled individuals on a daily basis. No other industry was required to organise itself to quite the same degree to respond to the lives and fates of people impaired in its ordinary functions. No other industry left such a legacy of ill-health, impairment and chronic sickness during the twentieth century. Former coalfield communities across Britain continue to suffer the legacy of nineteenth- and twentieth-century coal capitalism and continue to face high levels of

in Disability in industrial Britain
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

posthumously in 1924, ‘had I seen so many crutches, so many empty jacket sleeves, so many wooden legs.’ Returning to his native Northumberland after his Murton experiences to work at Cramlington Colliery, Burt was again struck by the high frequency of ‘accidents to life and limb’ and noticed people using ‘crutches and wooden legs’ among the local population. Although these were ‘less conspicuous than at Murton’, workers with impairments were a common sight at Cramlington. Burt recorded at least one by name, a mineworker called Bob Barrass who had ‘unhappily lost an eye’ but

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution