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The trial in history, volume II
Editor: R. A. Melikan

Lawyers had been producing reports of trials and appellate proceedings in order to understand the law and practices of the Westminster courts since the Middle Ages, and printed reports had appeared in the late fifteenth century. This book considers trials in the regular English criminal courts in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It also considers the contribution of criminal lawyers in developing the modern rules of evidence. The book explores the influence of scientific and pseudoscientific knowledge on Victorian insanity trials and trials for homosexual offences, respectively. The British Trials Collection contains the only readily accessible and near-verbatim accounts of civil trials from the 1760s, 1770s, and 1780s, decades crucial to understanding how the rules of evidence developed. It might be thought that Defence of the Realm Acts (DORA) or its regulations would have introduced trials in camera. The book presents a comparative critique of war crimes trials before the International Military Tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo and the International Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. The first spy trial by court martial after the legal change in 1915 was that of Robert Rosenthal, who was German. The book also considers the principal features of the first war crimes trial of the twenty-first century in terms of personnel and procedures, the alleged crimes, and issues of legality and legitimacy. It also speculates on the narratives or non-narratives of the trial and how these may impact on the professed aims and objectives of the litigation.

Legality and legitimacy

International Military Tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo and the International Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda. It also looks to future trials that could take place before the Permanent International Criminal Court. Any trial can be viewed as a drama.2 However, it is never an abstract drama. A trial or series of trials has to be localised in a system of criminal law and justice. International trials have to be localised in ‘systems’ of ‘international criminal law’ and ‘international criminal justice’. However, the very existence of such ‘systems’ has been

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Open Access (free)
Victim, witness and evidence of mass violence

an International Criminal Court on 17 July 1998, UN Doc. A/ Conf.183/9, 1998 Statute of the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, United Nations, 1993. Approved by the Security Council of the United Nations in Resolution 827 of 25 May 1993 Statute of the International Tribunal for Rwanda, United Nations, 1994. Decided by the Security Council of the United Nations, Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994 ICC (International Criminal Court) Prosecutor v. Bemba Gombo (case no. ICC-01/05-01/08), Decision pursuant to article 61(7)(a) and (b) of the Rome Statute on

in Human remains and mass violence