The parliamentary arena
Ami Pedahzur

constitutional barriers has helped Germany forestall representation of extremist parties at the federal Parliament level over the course of years and, in turn, has also helped stabilise the democratic system. The socio-political underpinnings of the response to extremism in Israel Both prior to the establishment of the State of Israel and in the years following, the party institution constituted a pivotal factor in the political processes involved in the nation’s construction. However, the role of the Israeli political party went far

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
The social sphere
Ami Pedahzur

examine how the State of Israel has contended with these paradoxes and, by the same token, try to find an answer to the paramount questions. Has the state-run education system in Israel undergone a gradual transition towards an increased emphasis on democratic values in its school curricula, consequently leading to the reinforcement of the ‘immunisation’ of the ‘defending democracy?’ Alternatively, has the non-liberal element gained the upper hand, thus reducing the prospects for the complete abandonment of the ‘militant’ attitude in response to extremism

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Defending democracy
Author: Ami Pedahzur

This book looks at the theoretical issue of how a democracy can defend itself from those wishing to subvert or destroy it without being required to take measures that would impinge upon the basic principles of the democratic idea. It links social and institutional perspectives to the study, and includes a case study of the Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence, which tests the theoretical framework outlined in the first chapter. There is an extensive diachronic scrutiny of the state's response to extremist political parties, violent organizations and the infrastructure of extremism and intolerance within Israeli society. The book emphasises the dynamics of the response and the factors that encourage or discourage the shift from less democratic and more democratic models of response.

Tami Amanda Jacoby

, ethnicity, religion and gender, groups whose main interests may not coincide, and may even conflict, with those of the state. Women tend to be positioned in such sub-state groups and, as such, comprise a major category from which to understand the exclusive nature of security in the Middle East. In this chapter, Israel is the immediate context for exploring gender roles ascribed by national security, and the

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Constructing security in historical perspective
Jonathan B. Isacoff

T HIS CHAPTER EXAMINES the concept of security through discursive contestation at the leadership level in a critical Middle Eastern case – that of Israel. The approach adopted here can be called historical constructivism in that it traces the fractured construction of security as a phenomenon that changes dramatically, and with significant political implications

in Redefining security in the Middle East
Ami Pedahzur

THIS CHAPTER EXPANDS further on the construct of the ‘defending democracy’ by inquiring into the ‘pro-democratic civil society’ and its role in the context of the ‘defending democracy’ model. The following pages will underscore the significance of the actions of this non-state actor in the ‘defending democracy’s’ transition from the ‘militant’ to the ‘immunised’ model. The fundamental argument here submits that, as a result of its isolation from the State, ‘civil society’ in Israel probably plays a threefold role in safeguarding Israeli

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Amikam Nachmani

Two characteristics formerly featuring prominently in Israeli–Turkish relations have vanished from the scene of late. There is now no trace of the “mistress syndrome,” the low profile, to revert to the terms of the complaint voiced by Israel’s first Prime Minister, David Ben Gurion. 1 Dr Uri Gordon, the first Israeli Ambassador to Turkey – representation at ambassadorial level, not legation, began in late 1991 – who had started on August 1990 as Chargé d’Affaires in the Israeli Legation in Ankara, and became the first Ambassador on 31

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
From the ‘militant’ to an ‘immunised’ route?
Ami Pedahzur

THIS CHAPTER HAS three principal objectives. First, on the basis of the findings of the first four chapters, it will provide a synopsis of the Israeli response to Jewish extremism and political violence. This will extend from the early days of the State’s existence until the beginning of the new millennium, with an emphasis on current developments. Such a historical perspective will enable us to assess the degree of success of the Israeli ‘defending democracy’ in moving from the ‘militant’ pole to the ‘immunised’ pole on the continuum of the

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Open Access (free)
The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis
Ami Pedahzur

THE TRIP TO Jerusalem on Monday morning, 6 November 1995, was uncomfortable, to put it mildly. The bus, provided by the Egged public transportation system, for citizens who wanted to take part in the funeral of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was more than filled to capacity. Many of the travellers, mostly the younger ones, were teary-eyed. Others simply did not hold back, and their sobbing could be heard throughout the bus. I looked out of the window at the arid landscape of the hot Israeli autumn and tried to collect my thoughts. From

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Attitudes towards subversive movements and violent organisations
Ami Pedahzur

, ‘democratic’. As reflected in its approaches to extremist parties and its responses to extra-parliamentary radical and violent acts of provocation, Israel has a history of continual revision. The general gist indicates a gradual transition from the ‘militant route’ or course of action – in this case, the ‘war model’ and the ‘extended criminal justice model’ – to an ‘immunised’ course, i.e. the ‘criminal justice model’. This chapter reviews the permutations through which Israeli counterinsurgent policy has gone, from the State’s inaugural years through

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence