Justin Champion

Locating John Toland Introduction . Locating John Toland T was desperately ill. He had recurring ‘pains in my thighs, reins and stomach’ accompanied by ‘a total loss of appetite, hourly retchings, and very high colour’d water’. His hopes that this suffering was the symptom of ‘gravel’ that would pass with the stones were dashed. Confined to his chamber for weeks, he could keep down nothing but weak broth, and was scarcely able to walk. Reduced to relying on the kindnesses of others by disastrous investments in the fashionable speculations of South Sea Company

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
John Toland and the crisis of Christian culture, 1696–1722
Author: Justin Champion

This book explores the life, thought and political commitments of the free-thinker John Toland (1670–1722). Studying both his private archive and published works, it illustrates how he moved in both subversive and elite political circles in England and abroad. The book explores the connections between Toland's republican political thought and his irreligious belief about Christian doctrine, the ecclesiastical establishment and divine revelation, arguing that far from being a marginal and insignificant figure, he counted queens, princes and government ministers as his friends and political associates. In particular, Toland's intimate relationship with the Electress Sophia of Hanover saw him act as a court philosopher, but also as a powerful publicist for the Hanoverian succession. The book argues that he shaped the republican tradition after the Glorious Revolution into a practical and politically viable programme, focused not on destroying the monarchy but on reforming public religion and the Church of England. It also examines how Toland used his social intimacy with a wide circle of men and women (ranging from Prince Eugene of Savoy to Robert Harley) to distribute his ideas in private. The book explores the connections between his erudition and print culture, arguing that his intellectual project was aimed at compromising the authority of Christian ‘knowledge’ as much as the political power of the Church. Overall, it illustrates how Toland's ideas and influence impacted upon English political life between the 1690s and the 1720s.

The Druids and the origins of ancient virtue
Justin Champion

consequences of noting the difference of form and audience has sometimes obscured and fragmented the integrity of intentions articulated in his writings. For some historians the ‘real’ John Toland is only present in the clandestine, secret, shadowy Masonic coteries, while the public Toland was little more than a hypocritical gad-fly irritating the orthodox establishment. This understanding not only devalues the sophistication of Toland’s public writing, but mis-characterises his similarly creative exploitation of manuscript publication. Manuscripts were not simply a

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
The reception of Christianity not mysterious, 1696–1702
Justin Champion

articulated political theory in defence of these liberties. NOTES 1 A. Boyer The political state of Great Britain XXIII (1722) p. 342. 2 BL Add Ms 5853 fo. 385. 3 Collections 2 pp. 301–304. 4 Ibid. pp. 309–313. 5 See Correspondence V No 29. 6 See J. A. I. Champion ‘John Toland: the politics of Pantheism’ Revue de Synthèse 116 86 MUP/Champion_04_Ch3 86 27/2/03, 10:18 am Reading scripture (1995) pp. 259–280. A more detailed account of the prosecution of Christianity not mysterious can be found in J. A. I. Champion ‘Making authority: belief, conviction and reason in the

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
John Toland and print and scribal communities
Justin Champion

Communities of readers 2 . Publishing reason: John Toland and print and scribal communities T OLAND did more than simply read and write books: he was a key agent in disseminating ideas around the elite salons of early eighteenth-century Europe. In the last chapter Toland’s involvement in a world of learning and the library was explored. One of the intentions was to underscore the social dimensions of this world of learning: gaining entrance to the inner sanctum of a man’s library was a means of getting inside his head. In locating Toland in this milieu we

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Milton, Harrington and the Williamite monarchy, 1698–1714
Justin Champion

Rewriting the commonwealth 4 . Editing the republic: Milton, Harrington and the Williamite monarchy, 1698–1714 A T some point in 1694, John Toland frequented Jack’s Coffee House in King’s Street, London. Recently arrived from Oxford, he struck up conversation with two persons ‘wholly unknown to him’. Boldly he opened the discussion with a powerful statement of political identity: ‘I am a commonwealth’s Man, tho’ I live at Whitehall, and that is a Mistery’. Continuing in this vein he challenged his auditors, ‘if any man will give me Ten guineas, I will go to

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Patristic erudition and the attack on Scripture
Justin Champion

therefore fundamental blasphemy. NOTES 1 F. H. Heinemann ‘John Toland, France, Holland, and Dr Williams’ Review of English Studies 25 (1949) pp. 346–349 at 346. 2 Tolandiana pp. 241, 244, 246. 3 Sullivan Toland esp. pp. 46–47. 4 See F. Schmidt ‘John Toland, critique Deiste de la littérature Apocryphe’ Apocrypha 1 (1990) pp. 119–145; B. E. Schwarzbach ‘The sacred genealogy of a Voltairean polemic: the development of critical hypotheses regarding the composition of the canonical gospels’ Studies in Voltaire and the eighteenth century 245 (1986) pp. 303–349. 5 See Nazarenus

in Republican learning
Open Access (free)
Imposters, legislators and civil religion
Justin Champion

reine de Prusse (Berlin, 1801) pp. 200–211. 7 S. Daniel John Toland (Montreal, 1984) p. 146 8 See M. Jacob ‘John Toland and the Newtonian ideology’ Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 32 (1969) pp. 307–331 especially at pp. 313–314. Klopp 2 pp. 361– 364. 9 Klopp 2 p. 362. 10 Ibid. pp. 363–364. 11 See Vienna Ms 10,325 ‘Dissertations Diverses’. See also Tolandiana p. 105. 12 See J. H. Nichols The Epicurean Philosophy: the De rerum natura of Lucretius (Cornell, 1976). See J. A. I. Champion ‘“The Men of Matter”: spirits, matter and the politics of priestcraft

in Republican learning
Justin Champion

: John Toland’s Description of Epsom’ Eighteenth Century Ireland 9 (1994) pp. 129–136. For a broader consideration of the politics of sociability between provinces and city see, S. E. Whyman Sociability and power in late-Stuart England: the cultural worlds of the Verneys 1660–1720 (Oxford, 1999). 10 Collections 2 p. 100. 11 Ibid. p. 105. 254 MUP/Champion_11_Concl 254 27/2/03, 10:27 am Writing enlightenment 12 Ibid. p. 115. 13 Ibid. p. 118. 14 Pantheisticon (1751) pp. 66–67. 15 Ibid. p. 73. 16 Ibid. pp. 85–86. 17 Ibid. p. 100. 18 Ibid. p. 57. 19 Ibid. pp. 11–14, 58

in Republican learning
S.J. Barnett

England, that the proliferation of Christian anticlerical theories in widely available and relatively lowbrow cheap editions were any less influential in politico-religious terms than those of the tiny number of so-called eighteenth-century deists. Anti-Catholics, Dissenters and other religious dissidents were loudly proclaiming the historically demonstrated priestcraft of Catholicism and Anglicanism, and in the process promoting a virulent anticlericalism. In fact, as we shall see, in the life of John Toland it is possible to see the transference of his Dissenter anti

in The Enlightenment and religion