Authors: Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

In 1997, Stuart Clark published the first monograph since the time of Jules Michelet to focus on pre-modern ideas about witches. The language of belief in witchcraft studies betrays an anachronistic, modernist and dismissive approach to a mental universe quite different from our own. This book makes the male witch visible, to construct him as a historical subject, as a first step toward a deeper understanding of the functions and role of gender in pre-modern European witch-hunting and ideas about witches. The overtly political dimension to the study of witches in early modern Europe demands a high level of consciousness and reflexivity regarding language, representation, and meaning. William Monter provides a wealth of data about male witches, in an 'unremarkable province' close to 'the heart of northern and western Europe'. Here, men comprised the majority of those tried and executed for witchcraft. The book examines cases in which men were accused of witchcraft. The examples are drawn from several different regions, in order to test conventional generalisations about male witches. The agency theory posits that actors always have choices; 'agent-centred' morality proposes a novel twist on both traditional Kantian internalist categories. The problems of both male and female witches' agency and selfhood are discussed. The book also presents data compiled from ten canonical works, and a brief discussion of demonological illustrations. Finally, it addresses the question of what it means to label a man as a witch within a framework that explicitly and implicitly feminised witchcraft.

Open Access (free)
Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

existed. In 1997, Stuart Clark published the first monograph since the time of Jules Michelet to focus on pre-modern ideas about witches. 1 Clark takes early modern ideas about witchcraft seriously; indeed, he devotes his first chapter to the language of witchcraft and the need to take ‘belief’ seriously as a motivating factor. However, Clark and the scholars beginning to follow his lead have retained the language of belief

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Nico Randeraad

. He admitted that his words were more polemic than eulogy, but that was fitting to the memory of Quetelet. Putting Quetelet’s life into a broader context, Engel quoted what Franz Xaver Neumann-Spallart had written in the Vienna Neue Freie Presse immediately after Quetelet’s death: ‘Erudite Europe has grown old.’ With the passing of giants like John Stuart Mill, Justus von Liebig, David Friedrich Strauß, Jules Michelet and now Quetelet ‘the best branches of European intellectual life had fallen leaf by leaf ’.27 Following Neumann, Engel explained that before Quetelet

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Entanglements and ambiguities
Saurabh Dube

overwrought social-scientific schemes: I provide a single example here. The writings of the early nineteenth-century French philosopher-historian Jules Michelet have been criticized as the work of a mere “romantic,” one that poetically idealized a popular “people” in his account of the French Revolution. Or they have been celebrated for uncovering a new object-subject of history

in Subjects of modernity