Open Access (free)

This book deals with the institutional framework in post-socialist, after-empire spaces. It consists of nine case studies and two contributions of a more theoretical nature. Each of these analytical narratives sheds some light on the micro-politics of organised violence. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. An 'unprofessional' riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred thousand people were forcefully expelled from their homes. The Herceg-Bosnian style of resistance can be surprisingly effective. It is known that most of the heroin transported along the Balkans route passes through the hands of Albanian mafia groups; that this traffic has taken off since summer 1999. The concept of Staatnation is based on the doctrine according to which each 'nation' must have its own territorial State and each State must consist of one 'nation' only. The slow decline and eventual collapse of the Soviet and the Yugoslav empires was partly triggered, partly accompanied by the quest for national sovereignty. Dagestan is notable for its ethnic diversity and, even by post-Soviet standards, its dramatic economic deprivation. The integrative potential of cooperative movements at the republican, the regional and the inter-state level for the Caucasus is analyzed. The book also offers insights into the economics of ending violence. Finally, it addresses the question of reconciliation after ethnic cleansing.

The organisation of war-escalation in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990–91
Hannes Grandits and Carolin Leutloff

1 Discourses, actors, violence: the organisation of war-escalation in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990–91 1 Hannes Grandits and Carolin Leutloff Introduction  6  1990 the second and final round of the first free multi-party elections since the end of the Second World War were held in Croatia. At that time it was still a socialist republic within the Yugoslavian Federation. The results of the elections were quite surprising. It was expected that the former Communist Party would lose its absolute political predominance, but the decisive victory of the

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Potentials of disorder in the Caucasus and Yugoslavia
Jan Koehler and Christoph Zürcher

and Leutloff’s Chapter 1 in this volume. Their chapter examines the role of discourses of violence and threat and the exploitation of ‘violent events’ for conflict escalation. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear proved to be the key resource. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. Within a year, an ‘unprofessional’ riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred

in Potentials of disorder
David Bruce MacDonald

Croatia was the easternmost rampart of Christian Europe, and was the sole defender of the West against the East. While the Serbs had also used similar imagery, suggesting that Orthodoxy was the West’s defence against Islam, the Croatian interpretation saw all former Ottoman colonies as eastern, with Orthodoxy itself as an 116 2441Chapter4 16/10/02 8:04 am Page 117 Croatia, ‘Greater Serbianism’, and the East–West conflict eastern religion. Clearly, this moved the eastern border to the Krajina region, within Croatian territory. Writers were quick to cite Croatia’s 1

in Balkan holocausts?
Language, education and the Catholic Church
Alex J. Bellamy

early as March 1992, she noted, 117 Catholic sacral objects in the Franciscan Province of Split had been destroyed or seriously damaged. By June 1994, around 40 per cent of churches in occupied Croatia had been destroyed or damaged and in 1995 the Church provided detailed evidence that 1,426 Catholic churches in Croatia had been badly damaged or destroyed.139 Ramet goes on to contrast this with the fact that in October 1995 it was found that of the 121 Serbian Orthodox churches that were in the so-called Krajina region that was occupied by the Serbs between 1991 and

in The formation of Croatian national identity