It is possible to argue that LatinAmerica is no more than
a geographical expression, and that, rather than trying to
generalize across a range of different countries, we need to
focus on the history of the individual republics. Certainly
there are significant differences within the region, and path
dependency is a factor in determining particular political
outcomes. However, there are important similarities within
the region as well. All LatinAmerican political systems are
presidential. No LatinAmerican country has achieved a
Contemporary civilisational analysis has emerged in the post-Cold War period as a forming but already controversial field of scholarship. This book focuses on the scholarship produced in this field since the 1970s. It begins with anthropological axioms posited by Ibn Khaldun, Simon Bolivar and George Pachymeres. Three conceptual images of civilisations are prominent in the field. First, civilisations are conceived as socio-cultural units, entities or blocs in an 'integrationist' image. They emerge out of long-term uneven historical processes. Finally, in a 'relational' image civilisations are believed to gain definition and institute developmental patterns through inter-societal and inter-cultural encounters. The book traces the history of semantic developments of the notions of 'civilisation' and 'civilisations' coextensive with the expansion of Europe's empires and consubstantial with colonialism. Early modernities are more important in the long formation of capitalism. Outlining the conceptual framework of inter-civilisational engagement, the book analytically plots the ties instituted by human imaginaries across four dimensions of inter-civilisational engagement. It also interrogates the relationship between oceans, seas and civilisations. Oceanian civilisation exhibits patterns of deep engagement and connection. Though damaged, Pacific cultures have invoked their own counter-imaginary in closer proximity to past islander experiences. Collective memory provides resources for coping with critical issues. The book also explores Latin American and Japanese experiences that shed light on the engagement of civilisations, applying the model of inter-civilisational engagement to modern perspectives in culture and the arts, politics, theology and political economy.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the European Union (EU) stands out as an important regional organization. This book focuses on the influence of the World Bank on the EU development cooperation policy, with special emphasis on the Lomé Convention. It explains the influence of trade liberalisation on EU trade preferences and provides a comparative analysis of the content and direction of the policies developed towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), the Mediterranean, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. It looks at the trade-related directorates and their contribution to the phenomenon referred as 'trade liberalisation'. This includes trends towards the removal or elimination of trade preferences and the ideology underlying this reflected in and created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organisation (GATT/WTO). The book examines the role of the mass media because the media are supposed to play a unique role in encouraging political reactions to humanitarian emergencies. The bolting on to development 'policy' of other continents, and the separate existence of a badly run Humanitarian Office (ECHO), brought the lie to the Maastricht Treaty telling us that the EU really had a coherent development policy. The Third World in general, and Africa in particular, are becoming important components in the EU's efforts to develop into a significant international player. The Cotonou Agreement proposes to end the preferential trade margins accorded to non-least developed ACP states in favour of more liberal free trade agreements strongly shaped by the WTO agenda.
This monograph seeks to examine the motivations for the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), the EU’s most important relationship with another regional economic integration organisation. This monograph argues that the dominant explanations in the literature -- balancing the US, global aspirations, being an external federator, long-standing economic and cultural ties, economic interdependence, and the Europeanization of Spanish and Portuguese national foreign policies – fail to adequately explain the EU’s policy. In particular, these accounts tend to infer the EU’s motives from its activity. Drawing extensive primary documents, this monograph argues that the major developments in the relationship -- the 1992 Inter-institutional Agreement and the 1995 Europe Mercosur Inter-regional Framework Cooperation Agreement – were initiated by Mercosur and supported mainly by Spain. This means that rather than the EU pursuing a strategy, as implied by most of the existing literature, the EU was largely responsive.
Engagement in the cross-currents of
history: perspectives on civilisation
In this chapter, I explore LatinAmerican experiences that shed light on the
engagement of civilisations. Most of the theoretical engagements canvassed
in Part I either sequester LatinAmerican experiences or do not do them justice. In the past, LatinAmerica has been judged poorly when questions of its
civilisational character have been asked. Scholars in modernisation studies and
area studies influenced by Louis Hartz’s The Founding of New Societies saw the
The article will present the findings of ethnographic research into the Colombian and
Mexican forensic systems, introducing the first citizen-led exhumation project made
possible through the cooperation of scholars, forensic specialists and interested citizens
in Mexico. The coupling evolution and mutual re-constitution of forensic science will be
explored, including new forms of citizenship and nation building projects – all approached
as lived experience – in two of Latin America‘s most complex contexts: organised crime and
O. U. and Shilliam ,
R. (eds), Routledge Handbook of
Postcolonial Politics ( London :
Routledge ), pp.
72 – 86 .
A. ( 2000 ),
‘ Coloniality of Power and Eurocentrism in LatinAmerica ’, International Sociology ,
15 : 2 ,
215 – 32 .
A. ( 2007 ),
‘ Coloniality and Modernity/Rationality ’,
Cultural Studies , 21 : 2–3 ,
168 – 78 .
Rutazibwa , O.
U. ( 2018 ), ‘ On
Babies and Bathwater: Decolonizing
Non-institutionalized relations between
the EU and Mercosur
This chapter covers the first stage of EU–Mercosur policy relations by
focusing on the period 1985 to 1990. At this stage, policy relations were
not institutionalized. Policy relations began in 1985 for several reasons.
Firstly, the EU signed the Treaty of Accession of Spain and Portugal which
marked the beginning of a new direction in policy towards LatinAmerica,
including the Mercosur countries; this is a clear reflection of the creation
of a ‘commitment’ towards LatinAmerica
solidarity with its victims. For a couple of decades it was successful
in publicly challenging Western foreign policy in Africa, LatinAmerica and Southeast Asia ( Duffield, 2007 : 51–4). Having once exercised a moral
leadership, however, after a long struggle against donor absorption and UN control, an
international direct humanitarian engagement finally yielded amid the horrors of Iraq and
The War on Terror imposed limitations. Compared to the 1970s and 1980s, humanitarian agencies
found their political room for manoeuvre significantly