Analysing two arenas over time
Wolfgang Wessels, Andreas Maurer, and Jürgen Mittag

2444Ch1 3/12/02 1 2:01 pm Page 3 Wolfgang Wessels, Andreas Maurer and Jürgen Mittag The European Union and Member States: analysing two arenas over time Our puzzles: traditional approaches and beyond Fifteen into one? takes up traditional approaches to political science. Since Aristotle it has been considered useful to compare constitutional and institutional dimensions of polities and not least to discuss ‘optimal’ models of policy-making. In view of the European Union’s multi-level and multi-actor polity, we add to a vast literature1 by highlighting the

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
The European Union and its member states

This book takes up traditional approaches to political science. It aims to offer a mixture of conventional and specific analyses and insights for different groups of readers. In view of the European Union's multi-level and multi-actor polity, the book highlights the complex procedural and institutional set-up of nation states preparing and implementing decisions made by the institutions of the European Community (EC). In looking at the emerging and evolving realities of the European polity, it shows how European institutions and Member States (re-)act and interact in a new institutional and procedural set-up. It explores how governmental and non-governmental actors in different national settings adapt to common challenges, constraints and opportunities for which they are mainly themselves responsible. The book discusses the Belgian policy toward European integration as a significant demonstration of its commitment to multilateralism and international co-operation in security and economic affairs. Attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Greece, and Spain are discussed. Tendencies towards 'Europeanisation' and 'sectoralisation' of the ministerial administration during the process of European integration and the typical administrative pluralism of the Italian political system seem to have mutually reinforced each other. Strong multi-level players are able to increase their access and influence at both levels and to use their position on one level for strengthening their say on the other. German and Belgian regions might develop into these kinds of actors. A persistent trend during the 1990s is traced towards stronger national performers, particularly in terms of adaptations and reactions to Maastricht Treaty.

The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

ICC Member States or in contexts – namely, Sudan and Libya – that the UN Security Council has referred to the ICC. 3 This story was relayed by a humanitarian practitioner interviewed for this article. In line with the research protocol, contextual details have been omitted for reasons of confidentiality, given the sensitivity of the issue. 4 See Mueller (1958) , which elaborates on the thesis-antithesis-synthesis framework, while also noting that Hegel’s own work does not actually conform to this model of dialectics. The authors thank Rhiannon

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Member States between procedural adaptation and structural revolution
Jürgen Mittag and Wolfgang Wessels

2444Ch18 3/12/02 18 2:07 pm Page 413 Jürgen Mittag and Wolfgang Wessels The ‘One’ and the ‘Fifteen’? The Member States between procedural adaptation and structural revolution Does the EU matter? Fundamentals before and after Maastricht The growth and differentiation of the institutional and procedural system of the European Union has created considerable challenges for all Member States.1 The very nature of the process of European integration is a continuing pooling of sovereignty, and a transfer of responsibilities and authorities, which has enlarged the

in Fifteen into one?
Security and complex political emergencies instead of development
Gorm Rye Olsen

making on EU external relations is still based on the principle of intergovernmentalism. The CFSP continues to be clearly intergovernmental and thus open to separate actions from individual EU member states parallel to the common or multilateral policies. According to the Maastricht Treaty (Title V, Article J), the CFSP is mainly a matter for the Presidency of the Council. The Treaty does not describe an explicit role for the Commission. Irrespective of this, the Commission has become more and more involved in day-to-day foreign policy making, and has actually

in EU development cooperation
The logics underpining EU enlargement
Helene Sjursen and Karen E. Smith

. Justifications of the EU’s foreign policy have two addressees: the first is internal to the EU and consists of the member states and their citizens; the second is external and consists of non-member states and their citizens. The principal focus here will be on the EU’s attempts to validate its foreign policy externally. At the same time, we assume that there is a connection between these attempts at external and internal justification

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
A political–cultural approach
Lisbeth Aggestam

of other member states or a European dimension. These words of a senior British foreign policy-maker reflect the experience of foreign policy cooperation between member states of the European Union for more than a quarter of a century. 1 Over the years, the level of ambition to speak with ‘one voice’ in foreign affairs has steadily increased to include even security and

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
The impact of EU membership and advancing integration
Karin Arts

, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Czech Republic are likely to accede to the European Union in 2004. In early 2000, preparations began for the accession of Bulgaria and Romania (Werts, 2002a, b). The accession of Turkey might be anticipated as well, but perhaps at a different pace. 101 EUD6 10/28/03 3:14 PM Page 102 Karin Arts Influencing the geographical scope of EC development policy and programmes It is well known that since the early days of the European integration process some individual member states directed the external relations agenda towards the interests of

in EU development cooperation
Structuring self-made offers and demands
Andreas Maurer and Wolfgang Wessels

-building To test different theory-led expectations and their impact on the Member States,1 in view of the Maastricht Treaty, we proceed in two steps. First, we explore the evolution of EC/EU primary law, e.g. treaty provisions. With regard to the institutional and procedural design ‘before’ and ‘after’ the TEU we scrutinise forms of decision-making rules within the EC/EU from its foundation. More precisely, we look at the evolution of decisionmaking rules in the Council of Ministers and the decision-making procedures involving the Council and the EP. We thus sketch the

in Fifteen into one?
Open Access (free)
Another awkward partner?
Karl Magnus Johansson

2444Ch16 3/12/02 16 2:06 pm Page 369 Karl Magnus Johansson Sweden: another awkward partner? Introduction: reluctant yet faithful Scholars of the European Union must lift the lid off the ‘black box’ of domestic politics to understand the behaviour of Member States in the integration processes. In this chapter, we will move inside the Swedish polity by analysing domestic constraints and institutional characteristics. The overarching aim is to capture the fundamentals of Sweden as an EU member, thereby identifying the primary actors involved in the

in Fifteen into one?