An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

others politically and economically. And this perhaps allows for a more egalitarian vision of the world. Celso Amorim was Brazil’s foreign minister from 1993 to 1994 and 2003 to 2010. An English translation of his most recent book was published in 2017: Acting Globally: Memoirs of Brazil’s Assertive Foreign Policy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The First World War was the first ‘total war’. Its industrial weaponry damaged millions of men, and drove whole armies underground into dangerously unhealthy trenches. Many were killed. Others suffered from massive, life-threatening injuries; wound infections such as gas gangrene and tetanus; exposure to extremes of temperature; emotional trauma; and systemic disease. Tens of thousands of women volunteered to serve as nurses to alleviate their suffering. Some were fully-trained professionals; others had minimal preparation, and served as volunteer-nurses. Their motivations were a combination of compassion, patriotism, professional pride and a desire for engagement in the ‘great enterprise’ of war. The war led to an outpouring of war-memoirs, produced mostly by soldier-writers whose works came to be seen as a ‘literary canon’ of war-writing. But nurses had offered immediate and long-term care, life-saving expertise, and comfort to the war’s wounded, and their experiences had given them a perspective on industrial warfare which was unique. Until recently, their contributions, both to the saving of lives and to our understanding of warfare have remained largely hidden from view. ‘Nurse Writers of the Great War’ examines these nurses’ memoirs and explores the insights they offer into the nature of nursing and the impact of warfare. The book combines close biographical research with textual analysis, in order to offer an understanding of both nurses’ wartime experiences and the ways in which their lives and backgrounds contributed to the style and content of their writing.

Christine E. Hallett

assistance in their increasingly technological work.3 In elite schools, such as those of London, Edinburgh, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, nurses were given theoretical instruction by doctors, and were then assisted by nurse tutors and head nurses in developing the art of translating such knowledge into expert practice. This process resulted in an increasing sense of autonomy among nurses, who saw their role as something that went well beyond that of doctor’s assistant. Two highly trained nurses, one British, the other American, wrote significant memoirs of their

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

9 Epic romance on Western and Eastern Fronts Introduction: the romance of volunteer work Most volunteer nurses of the First World War were female, young, and – within the limits of their time – well educated. They were more likely than trained nurses to publish memoirs of the war. Somewhat paradoxically, they were also more likely to write about the intricacies of nursing practice. While the writings of trained nurses focused on the courage and endurance of patients, those of volunteers emphasised the drama of nursing itself. Chapter  8 explored the ways in

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

voices of trained nurses remained mostly silent. This book offers an analysis of the published war memoirs of nurses – both trained and volunteer. It examines the ways in which the cultural and social backgrounds of nurse writers influenced the ways in which they wrote. It is both a collective biography of a small but significant group, and an exploration of a particular type of cultural output. It asks: What were the experiences of nurses who wrote war memoirs? What motivated them to write? What images of themselves and their work did they project? What meanings did

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Philip Nanton

Margaret Atwood’s thriller Bodily Harm ( 1998 [1981] ). While the two novels omit any direct reference to a specific country, they speak strongly to the particularity of the smaller Caribbean islands. Finally, I read two political memoirs by Prime Ministers of St Vincent for what they reveal about the frontier: that of James ‘Son’ Mitchell, Prime Minister from 1984 to 2001, and the other by his successor, Ralph

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

war generation to destruction. It was also an act of feminism. In her later memoir, Testament of Experience, Brittain described how she had read the war memoirs of Robert Graves, Richard Aldington, Erich Maria Remarque, Ernest Hemingway, Edmund Blunden, and Siegfried Sassoon, and wondered: ‘Why should these young men have the war to themselves?’.41 Women, too, had entered war with high ideals, suffered disillusionment, and then somehow found the courage to go on. Although Testament of Youth was written primarily in memory of the men Brittain had lost – her fiancé

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Open Access (free)
Christine E. Hallett

dictated their respective governments’ entries into the First World War. Nor would it have occurred to them to question the authority of the Army Medical Services, which mobilised their efforts and transferred them – sometimes at a few hours’ notice – from one treatment scenario to another. British and North American nurses had much in common. As Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson observe:  ‘remembering has a politics’.9 Nurses who would not have viewed themselves as ‘politically minded’ wrote memoirs that both reveal a stark reality about the wounding and maiming brought

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Christine E. Hallett

the blood and anguish in which I move”: American Women’s First World War Nursing Memoirs’, in Alison S. Fell and Christine E. Hallett (eds), First World War Nursing: New Perspectives (New York: Routledge, 2013): 51–68.  2 Christine Hallett, Containing Trauma: Nursing Work in the First World War (Manchester:  Manchester University Press, 2009):  194–8; Hallett, Veiled Warriors: 47–54.  3 Katrin Schultheiss, Bodies and Souls:  Politics and the Professionalization of Nursing in France, 1880–1922 (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 2001); Hallett, Veiled

in Nurse Writers of the Great War

This collection interrogates the representation of humanitarian crisis and catastrophe, and the refraction of humanitarian intervention and action, from the mid-twentieth century to the present, across a diverse range of media forms: traditional and contemporary screen media (film, television and online video) as well as newspapers, memoirs, music festivals and social media platforms (such as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr). The book thus explores the historical, cultural and political contexts that have shaped the mediation of humanitarian relationships since the middle of the twentieth century. Together, the chapters illustrate the continuities and connections, as well as the differences, which have characterised the mediatisation of both states of emergency and acts of amelioration. The authors reveal and explore the significant synergies between the humanitarian enterprise, the endeavour to alleviate the suffering of particular groups, and media representations, and their modes of addressing and appealing to specific publics. The chapters consider the ways in which media texts, technologies and practices reflect and shape the shifting moral, political, ethical, rhetorical, ideological and material dimensions of international humanitarian emergency and intervention, and have become integral to the changing relationships between organisations, institutions, governments, individual actors and entire sectors.