Responsive not strategic

This monograph seeks to examine the motivations for the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), the EU’s most important relationship with another regional economic integration organisation. This monograph argues that the dominant explanations in the literature -- balancing the US, global aspirations, being an external federator, long-standing economic and cultural ties, economic interdependence, and the Europeanization of Spanish and Portuguese national foreign policies – fail to adequately explain the EU’s policy. In particular, these accounts tend to infer the EU’s motives from its activity. Drawing extensive primary documents, this monograph argues that the major developments in the relationship -- the 1992 Inter-institutional Agreement and the 1995 Europe Mercosur Inter-regional Framework Cooperation Agreement – were initiated by Mercosur and supported mainly by Spain. This means that rather than the EU pursuing a strategy, as implied by most of the existing literature, the EU was largely responsive.

Arantza Gomez Arana

3 European Union policy-making towards Mercosur Introduction The EU is not a state and is not a traditional international organization. It is common to characterize it as a hybrid system with a federal component, but nothing comparable exists at this point in time. To understand EU policy-making towards Mercosur it is important to understand the internal system of the EU, its internal policy-making and the internal system of Mercosur, particularly given that Mercosur has tried to replicate the institutional design of the EU. Since its creation in 1957 in the

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Arantza Gomez Arana

5 The most productive years of EU–Mercosur relations Introduction This chapter covers a new stage in EU policy towards Mercosur and Latin America. It started with a new framework of policies within which agreements between the EU and Latin American countries, including the Mercosur countries, were made. By explaining EU–Mercosur agreements within the general context of EU–Latin America relations, it is possible to shed light on the level of EU engagement with Mercosur in relative terms, to avoid either over- or underestimating the engagement. The discussion will

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Arantza Gomez Arana

4 Non-institutionalized relations between the EU and Mercosur Introduction This chapter covers the first stage of EU–Mercosur policy relations by focusing on the period 1985 to 1990. At this stage, policy relations were not institutionalized. Policy relations began in 1985 for several reasons. Firstly, the EU signed the Treaty of Accession of Spain and Portugal which marked the beginning of a new direction in policy towards Latin America, including the Mercosur countries; this is a clear reflection of the creation of a ‘commitment’ towards Latin America

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Arantza Gomez Arana

8 Lessons to be learned from the EU policy towards Mercosur Introduction Russia and China, as well as partners in Latin-America, deserve a clear European strategy. Africa has, unfortunately, been absent from the EU’s strategic agenda for years and needs to be reengaged … The Union can be a global actor considering we possess the objectives, principles and instruments. Unfortunately the political will is often lacking and the question is whether the EU Member States will take action to change this. (Moratinos 2010) The views of Miguel Angel Moratinos, Spanish

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
Juliano Fiori

per cent. Rice said to me, ‘Let’s have a second round and he will win.’ But we weren’t in Switzerland. Things weren’t so simple. People were already protesting, breaking hotels. The Americans became scared and the electoral council made a pronouncement, bringing Préval to power. The way his successor came to power wasn’t positive. But, by then, Lula’s government had come to an end, I was no longer foreign minister and, under [Brazilian President Dilma] Rousseff, there were other priorities: problems with Mercosur, etc. I am not trying to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Arantza Gomez Arana

6 The first attempt to negotiate the association agreement Introduction This chapter aims to explain the phase in EU–Mercosur relations which saw the negotiation of the association agreement without reaching a successful ending. Both parties developed those negotiations under the EMIFCA. It was agreed that this agreement would be carried out in two phases. The first phase related to the preparation of the ground for future negotiations by comparing standards, statistical systems and trade procedures, whilst the second phase centred on trade liberalization. The

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Arantza Gomez Arana

7 The second attempt to negotiate the association agreement Introduction From the moment the EU and Mercosur stopped negotiations there was no progress or a real intention to restart the negotiations until 2010. Officially the EU and Mercosur continued negotiating the association agreement, but it is fair to say that after such a failure at the last minute in October 2004, both sides had become cautious in their hopes for a successful agreement. Considering that the negotiations had failed publicly, it is understandable that some years of ‘healing’ were needed

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Open Access (free)
The study of European Union relations with Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana

1 Introduction: the study of European Union relations with Mercosur Introduction This monograph seeks to examine the motivations that determine the European Union’s (EU) policy towards the Common Market of the South (Mercosur), which is the most important relationship that the EU has with another regional economic integration organization. In order to investigate these motivations (or lack thereof), this volume will examine the contribution of the main policy- and decision-makers, the European Commission and the Council of Ministers, as well as the different

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur:
Open Access (free)
Relations between the European Union and Mercosur
Arantza Gomez Arana

2 Analytical framework: relations between the European Union and Mercosur Introduction This chapter establishes the analytical framework that will be used to examine EU–Mercosur relations. It begins by offering a critical review of the existing literature. Until now, the literature on EU–Mercosur has been very descriptive but not very analytical. It has tended to cover specific moments of the relations and as a consequence it has forgotten to look at the bigger picture. Most authors have chosen to explain EU–Mercosur relations by using more than one argument at

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur: