Colonial powers and Ethiopian frontiers 1880–1884 is the fourth volume of Acta Aethiopica, a series that presents original Ethiopian documents of nineteenth-century Ethiopian history with English translations and scholarly notes. The documents have been collected from dozens of archives in Africa and Europe to recover and present the Ethiopian voice in the history of Ethiopia in the nineteenth century. The present book, the first Acta Aethiopica volume to appear from Lund University Press, deals with how Ethiopian rulers related to colonial powers in their attempts to open Ethiopia for trade and technological development while preserving the integrity and independence of their country. In addition to the correspondence and treatises with the rulers and representatives of Italy, Egypt and Great Britain, the volume also presents letters dealing with ecclesiastical issues, including the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem.

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Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

Sultan Ḥanfadhē. Dated in the month of Jumād al-Ākhir, the 15th, Friday, the year 1301 Hijra. __________________ ASMAE, AE 2. Arabic original. A part of the text is not clear since the edge of the paper has been cut. Thus, our translation is in some parts tentative. 209 RUBENSON TEXT.indd 209 03/02/2021 13:53 Document no. 159 Minīlik II to Pietro Antonelli, 8 May 1884 From King Minīlik II, King of Shewa, Kefa, and all its depen­den­cies, i.e. the lands of the Galla; [may it] reach Mr. Count An­to­nel­li. How are you? By the grace of God I find myself in a state

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
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Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

Bejirond Lewṭē. Seal: The seal of Bejirond Lewṭē. __________________ Ghali Collection, no. 156, Arabic original. This Arabic text has been extremely difficult to decipher and understand, thus the above translation must be regarded as a paraphrase. For the author, see doc. 24. 79 RUBENSON TEXT.indd 79 03/02/2021 13:53 Document no. 66 Yohannis IV to Minīlik II, 15 Jan. 1882 May the message of the Elect of God Yohannis, King of Zion, King of Kings of Ethiopia, reach King Minīlik, an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no guile. Peace be to you and the peace of God be

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
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Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

including a reference to ‘Abdallāh Shaḥīm, who ratified the convention only in November 1880 (see doc. 19), a much more precise definition of the area sold, including the island Sennabor, the right to raise the Italian flag, and detailed accounts of payments and previous agreements. This long version was probably produced for the Italian legal system and was never sealed or signed by the sultans. 15 RUBENSON TEXT.indd 15 03/02/2021 13:53 Document no. 10 Minīlik II to Victoria, 3 June 1880 16 RUBENSON TEXT.indd 16 03/02/2021 13:53 May [this message] sent by King

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
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Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

:53 Document no. 36 Minīlik II to Umberto I, 30 March 1881 Message sent by King Minīlik, King of Shewa, to King Umberto I, King of Italy, Jerusalem and Cyprus. How is Your Majesty? I, by the grace of God, am well, and all my army is well. May God glorify Your Majesty for having sent to me the decoration of the Cross of the Kingdom of Italy and for all the other very beautiful gifts, and the letter. Now, by this letter, I let Your Majesty know that Captain Cecchi has been released and is [here] with me. I have done much work and made as many efforts as I could to save this

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884
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Sven Rubenson, Amsalu Aklilu, Shiferaw Bekele, and Samuel Shiferaw 

. The Italian version states: “On this the 21st day of the month of May in the year 1883 (Gregorian calendar) corre­sponding to 14th Ginbot 1875 (Ethiopian Calendar) in the city of Ankober, the repre­sentative of His Majesty King Minīlik II and the representative of the govern­ment of His Majesty the King of Italy have hereunto affixed their respective signatures so that the treaty reaches the city of Rome as early as possible for the necessary ratification.” Both Amharic and Italian drafts are found in ASMAI 36/2–13; one is also printed in AP.DD, XV, pp. 62–63. For

in Colonial Powers and Ethiopian Frontiers 1880–1884