Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

like a business with a huge budget. Bertrand: Again we’re talking about what we would now call ‘faith-based organisations’ – and I wonder, Kevin, if you could say what is the specificity of this kind of religious presence in the response to Biafra? Kevin: Nigeria was a land of missions in the 1960s. For example, when the war broke out, there were over seven hundred Irish Catholic nuns, priests and brothers in the Eastern Region [ Missionary

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Aid Industry and the ‘Me Too’ Movement
Charlotte Lydia Riley

, S. ( 2018 ), ‘ The Collective Power of #MeToo ’, Dissent , 65 : 2 , 80 – 7 . Kagumire , R. ( 2018 ), ‘ An American Missionary’s Racist Rant in Uganda Shows the Disturbing Reality of White Savior Complex ’, Quartz Africa, https://qz.com/africa/1367413/american-missionary

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

industry, a movement?) complex. It has a spark of humanity at its core, the preservation of hope for us all. Third, humanitarianism also serves as a vector for the deeper norms of liberalism, spreading what Barry called ‘the liberal outlook’: secular humanitarians are modern missionaries even in their very being, carrying with them modernity in terms of ideas about gender, sexuality, freedom of choice and more. This is entirely consistent with the emphasis on the consuming individual at the core of the modern market-based global economy. For the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Visual Politics and Narratives of Red Cross Museums in Europe and the United States, 1920s to 2010s
Sönke Kunkel

and the art exhibition’ ( Brigham, 1924 ). Tourists and locals seemed to have a similar impression, driving annual visitor numbers up to something between 70,000 and 80,000 visitors by the year 1923 ( Brigham, 1924 ). The success of the museum also inspired further museum plans elsewhere. In 1921, the Woman’s National Missionary Association of the Universalist Church acquired Clara Barton’s North Oxford, Massachusetts, homestead and re-modeled it into

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

staff, who since 2013 have been ‘partnered’ with a Congolese ‘assistant’, a guide relied upon for ‘local’ knowledge. The ‘relational and interpretive’ labour of local aid workers often remains overlooked, or ‘invisible’, in aid implementation ( Peters, 2020 ). But the everyday processes of brokerage and translation ( Lewis and Mosse, 2006 ; Bierschenk et al. , 2000 ) conducted by local staff are central to understanding humanitarian operations in conflict. To make sense of these dynamics, I draw upon the literature on intermediaries and brokers: missionaries

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

governments considered authoritarian, in addition to providing aid and support in the various peace processes. Humanitarianism has been characterised by the preaching of ‘impartiality, neutrality and independence’ ( Ferris, 2011 : 11). These maxims are based on the idea that ‘politics is a moral polluter’ ( Barnett and Weiss, 2008 : 4). However, the fact that the funding, profile and structure of these institutions come from the Global North is seen as ‘a mutation of colonial power and an extension of religious missionary activity in a new form’ ( Benthall and Bellion

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Colonial Medical Service in British Africa
Editor: Anna Greenwood

A collection of essays about the Colonial Medical Service of Africa in which a group of distinguished colonial historians illustrate the diversity and active collaborations to be found in the untidy reality of government medical provision. The authors present important case studies in a series of essays covering former British colonial dependencies in Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar. These studies reveal many new insights into the enactments of colonial policy and the ways in which colonial doctors negotiated the day-to-day reality during the height of Imperial rule in Africa. The book provides essential reading for scholars and students of colonial history, medical history and colonial administration.

Open Access (free)
Medical missionaries and government service in Uganda, 1897–1940
Yolana Pringle

One of the distinctive features of Western medical practice in early colonial Uganda was the high level of collaboration between mission doctors and the Colonial Medical Service. 1 In the period before 1940, a number of Church Missionary Society (CMS) doctors negotiated dual roles as missionaries and colonial medical officers. An even greater number participated in

in Beyond the state
An unexpected text in an unexpected place
Michelle Elleray

On 16 May 1847, a Pacific Islander named Kiro landed in England, becoming one of the earliest recorded people to arrive there from Rarotonga, the most populous island in what are now the Cook Islands. 1 Pacific Islanders have a long history of global mobility, but this arrival was distinctive because Kiro had travelled from the South Pacific with Aaron Buzacott of the London Missionary Society (LMS) in order to help Buzacott with the translation of the Bible into Cook Islands Māori. Describing the missionary ship’s arrival in later years, Kiro spoke of the

in Worlding the south
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts
Markku Hokkanen

, missionary medicine preceded British rule by nearly two decades, making it a crucial site for investigating relations and interactions between missions and the state. 3 As Vaughan and others have shown, there were notable differences as well as common ground between missionary and secular discourses of African illnesses and Western medicine in colonial Africa. 4 The focus of this chapter is on the connections

in Beyond the state