Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

what Barry called ‘the liberal outlook’: secular humanitarians are modern missionaries even in their very being, carrying with them modernity in terms of ideas about gender, sexuality, freedom of choice and more. This is entirely consistent with the emphasis on the consuming individual at the core of the modern market-based global economy. For the majority of humanitarians, a set of rights-based freedoms are ‘normal’. Along with shelter, food and medicine come ways of living that challenge long-established social and cultural norms as well as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Colonial Medical Service in British Africa
Editor: Anna Greenwood

A collection of essays about the Colonial Medical Service of Africa in which a group of distinguished colonial historians illustrate the diversity and active collaborations to be found in the untidy reality of government medical provision. The authors present important case studies in a series of essays covering former British colonial dependencies in Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar. These studies reveal many new insights into the enactments of colonial policy and the ways in which colonial doctors negotiated the day-to-day reality during the height of Imperial rule in Africa. The book provides essential reading for scholars and students of colonial history, medical history and colonial administration.

Open Access (free)
Medical missionaries and government service in Uganda, 1897–1940
Yolana Pringle

One of the distinctive features of Western medical practice in early colonial Uganda was the high level of collaboration between mission doctors and the Colonial Medical Service. 1 In the period before 1940, a number of Church Missionary Society (CMS) doctors negotiated dual roles as missionaries and colonial medical officers. An even greater number participated in

in Beyond the state
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts
Markku Hokkanen

, missionary medicine preceded British rule by nearly two decades, making it a crucial site for investigating relations and interactions between missions and the state. 3 As Vaughan and others have shown, there were notable differences as well as common ground between missionary and secular discourses of African illnesses and Western medicine in colonial Africa. 4 The focus of this chapter is on the connections

in Beyond the state
Emigration and sectarian rivalry
Sarah Roddy

, based on zero-sum assumptions that ‘the Protestant interest’ was strengthened by every Catholic departure and vice versa. It was manifested most virulently in the middle decades of the century and was inextricably bound up with the contemporaneous efforts of evangelical Protestants to convert Catholics in the so-called ‘Second Reformation’. Partly by mining the wealth of controversial written material produced by Protestant missionaries and their Catholic counterparts during this period, this chapter will attempt to ascertain how clergy believed their churches might

in Population, providence and empire
Barbra Mann Wall

, constitutional changes increased Nigerian self-governance, and in 1960 the country obtained independence, albeit an unstable one.1 Political tensions and ethnic and religious differences led to the civil war that began in 1967 when the southeastern area attempted to secede to form the Republic of Biafra. During the Nigerian civil war, Catholic mission hospitals became sites for a shift in the understanding of nursing and medical practices as missionaries worked to care for survivors of violence. After the war, a dominant role for Nigerians began in Catholic healthcare missions

in Colonial caring
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30
Winifred C. Connerton

6 Working towards health, Christianity and democracy: American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–301 Winifred C. Connerton At the turn of the twentieth century American nurses went to Puerto Rico as members of the Army Nurse Corps, as colonial service workers and as Protestant missionaries. Though the nurses went as members of very different organisations they all espoused similar messages about America, Christianity and trained nursing. This chapter explores the overlapping messages of Protestant missionaries and of the United States (US

in Colonial caring
Open Access (free)
‘If they treat the Indians humanely, all will be well’
Julie Evans, Patricia Grimshaw, David Philips and Shurlee Swain

Indian agents; the missionaries; the settlers; and the Indigenous peoples themselves. The Colonial Office response in the past had been one of avoidance, decreasing the opportunities for demands to be made. Lieutenant-Colonel James’s recommendation that ‘Indian Councils should not be Assembled at every pretext; it is a most mistaken notion that an Indian must have all his requests complied with’ was

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
Open Access (free)
A history of colonial and post-colonial nursing
Editors: Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.

Nursing and medical records in the Imperial War in Ethiopia (1935–36)
Anna La Torre, Giancarlo Celeri Bellotti and Cecilia Sironi

inexperienced [and] we have experienced a crisis due to lack of nurses and this happens very often’.36 When the Italo-Ethiopian War was about to break out, Italian Catholic missionary fathers and nuns of the Consolata missions of Turin were based in Ethiopia. Thanks to the good relationship established with Empress Zauditù and Ras Tafari (the future Emperor Haile Selassie), they were supported by the National Association for the Assistance of Italian Catholic Missionaries and the Anti-Slavery Society in Italy, and managed to establish ten mission stations, thirty-six schools

in Colonial caring