An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
former president should be allowed to run in the
forthcoming election. ‘We have conditions to do great things,’ he said to me when
we met, ‘but of course we need a legitimate government.’ It is far from clear that
the election, only weeks away, can deliver this. Juliano Fiori: You first served as Brazilian foreign minister in the early 1990s.
Between then and now, what has been the principal change in the conduct of international
relations? Celso Amorim: For me, the most important change to note is that, for the first
time in modernhistory, the
Soaking up the rays forges a new path for exploring Britain’s fickle love of the light by investigating the beginnings of light therapy in the country from c.1890-1940. Despite rapidly becoming a leading treatment for tuberculosis, rickets and other infections and skin diseases, light therapy was a contentious medical practice. Bodily exposure to light, whether for therapeutic or aesthetic ends, persists as a contested subject to this day: recommended to counter psoriasis and other skin conditions as well as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and depression; closely linked to notions of beauty, happiness and well-being, fuelling tourism to sunny locales abroad and the tanning industry at home; and yet with repeated health warnings that it is a dangerous carcinogen. By analysing archival photographs, illustrated medical texts, advertisements, lamps, and goggles and their visual representation of how light acted upon the body, Woloshyn assesses their complicated contribution to the founding of light therapy. Soaking up the rays will appeal to those intrigued by medicine’s visual culture, especially academics and students of the histories of art and visual culture, material cultures, medicine, science and technology, and popular culture.
T O R Y H I S T O R Y 117
Tory history: Thomas Salmon’s
The popularity of Rapin’s Histoire ensured that it generated a large
number of responses from other historians. Indeed, both Thomas
Salmon’s ModernHistory (1724–38), the subject of this chapter, and
Thomas Carte’s General History (1747–55), the subject of the next,
provided direct attacks on Rapin’s account. However, whereas Rapin
had shown little interest in contemporary debates about public credit,
Salmon’s and Carte’s analyses were structured around criticisms of
the system of
, while Alfred
is said to have built new trading vessels ‘more commodious for commerce’, thereby helping to ensure that wealth ‘abounded in his realm;
and gems, spices, with other oriental goods, were imported from the
A key effect of such analyses was to reduce the qualitative differences between ancient and modernhistory; indeed, monarchs such
as Mercury and Alfred are shown to be ambitious, Stuart-style rulers
committed to maintaining order and advancing the commercial
interests of the nation and its people. Such an approach constituted a
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology:
the case of Adolf Furtwängler
Ulf R. Hansson
restrict our work, speech and actions, regardless of whether they are perceived as mostly positive or negative in character (Montuori and Purser,
1995: 83; Livingstone, 2003; Bourdieu, 2004). Conflicts and disputes
potentially impinge on where, why and how research is planned, conducted, presented and received. Based on a fairly well-documented but
little studied case from the formative period in the modernhistory
of Classical archaeology, this chapter explores how dynamic scholarly
processes can be affected when a so-called ‘key actor’ in the community
We attempt here to clarify ideas about ideology – what it is,
how it is transmitted, how useful it is in making sense of society. We
also examine its relevance to recent modernhistory both in Britain and
in other parts of the world. Then we analyse the situation in
contemporary Britain and consider whether it can be reasonably asserted
that there is an ideological consensus in
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, historians of England pioneered a series of new approaches to the history of economic policy. Commerce, finance and statecraft charts the development of these forms of writing and explores the role they played in the period's economic, political and historiographical thought. Through doing so, the book makes a significant intervention in the study of historiography, and provides an original account of early-modern and Enlightenment history. A broad selection of historical writing is discussed, ranging from the work of Francis Bacon and William Camden in the Jacobean era, through a series of accounts shaped by the English Civil War and the party-political conflicts that followed it, to the eighteenth-century's major account of British history: David Hume's History of England. Particular attention is paid to the historiographical context in which historians worked and the various ways they copied, adapted and contested one another's narratives. Such an approach enables the study to demonstrate that historical writing was the site of a wide-ranging, politically charged debate concerning the relationship that existed – and should have existed – between government and commerce at various moments in England’s past.
This book argues for greater openness in the ways we approach human rights and international rights promotion, and in so doing brings some new understanding to old debates. Starting with the realities of abuse rather than the liberal architecture of rights, it casts human rights as a language for probing the political dimensions of suffering. Seen in this context, the predominant Western models of right generate a substantial but also problematic and not always emancipatory array of practices. These models are far from answering the questions about the nature of political community that are raised by the systemic infliction of suffering. Rather than a simple message from ‘us’ to ‘them’, then, rights promotion is a long and difficult conversation about the relationship between political organisations and suffering. Three case studies are explored: the Tiananmen Square massacre, East Timor's violent modern history and the circumstances of indigenous Australians. The purpose of these discussions is not to elaborate on a new theory of rights, but to work towards rights practices that are more responsive to the spectrum of injury that we inflict and endure.
The substantive and methodological contributions of professional historians to development policy debates was marginal, whether because of the dominance of economists or the inability of historians to contribute. There are broadly three ways in which history matters for development policy. These include insistence on the methodological principles of respect for context, process and difference; history is a resource of critical and reflective self-awareness about the nature of the discipline of development itself; and history brings a particular kind of perspective to development problems . After establishing the key issues, this book explores the broad theme of the institutional origins of economic development, focusing on the cases of nineteenth-century India and Africa. It demonstrates that scholarship on the origins of industrialisation in England in the late eighteenth century suggests a gestation reaching back to a period during which a series of social institutional innovations were pioneered and extended to most citizens of England. The book examines a paradox in China where an emphasis on human welfare characterized the rule of the eighteenth-century Qing dynasty, and has been demonstrated in modern-day China's emphasis on health and education. It provides a discussion on the history of the relationship between ideology and policy in public health, sanitation in India's modern history and the poor health of Native Americans. The book unpacks the origins of public education, with a focus on the emergency of mass literacy in Victorian England and excavates the processes by which colonial education was indigenized throughout South-East Asia.
This book's argument takes as its point of departure the question of how to promote human rights observance in international life. The whole complex business of international human rights promotion is not approached here as a particularly ‘innocent’ enterprise. The argument here proceeds from the understanding, or the presumption, that questions of human rights are also part of the much broader context of people's repeated efforts to work against the systemic infliction of suffering in political life and to create conditions of life that do not turn upon the generation of such suffering. Within international politics, and according to the Westphalian order, a distinction, indeed a complex opposition, is commonly drawn between the proper domain of politics and that of ethics, with human rights standardly classed with ethics. This book explores three case studies: the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989, East Timor's violent modern history, and the health of Australian Aborigines.