An Interview with Celso Amorim, Former Brazilian Foreign Minister
former president should be allowed to run in the
forthcoming election. ‘We have conditions to do great things,’ he said to me when
we met, ‘but of course we need a legitimate government.’ It is far from clear that
the election, only weeks away, can deliver this. Juliano Fiori: You first served as Brazilian foreign minister in the early 1990s.
Between then and now, what has been the principal change in the conduct of international
relations? Celso Amorim: For me, the most important change to note is that, for the first
time in modernhistory, the
Soaking up the rays forges a new path for exploring Britain’s fickle love of the light by investigating the beginnings of light therapy in the country from c.1890-1940. Despite rapidly becoming a leading treatment for tuberculosis, rickets and other infections and skin diseases, light therapy was a contentious medical practice. Bodily exposure to light, whether for therapeutic or aesthetic ends, persists as a contested subject to this day: recommended to counter psoriasis and other skin conditions as well as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and depression; closely linked to notions of beauty, happiness and well-being, fuelling tourism to sunny locales abroad and the tanning industry at home; and yet with repeated health warnings that it is a dangerous carcinogen. By analysing archival photographs, illustrated medical texts, advertisements, lamps, and goggles and their visual representation of how light acted upon the body, Woloshyn assesses their complicated contribution to the founding of light therapy. Soaking up the rays will appeal to those intrigued by medicine’s visual culture, especially academics and students of the histories of art and visual culture, material cultures, medicine, science and technology, and popular culture.
We attempt here to clarify ideas about ideology – what it is,
how it is transmitted, how useful it is in making sense of society. We
also examine its relevance to recent modernhistory both in Britain and
in other parts of the world. Then we analyse the situation in
contemporary Britain and consider whether it can be reasonably asserted
that there is an ideological consensus in
This book argues for greater openness in the ways we approach human rights and international rights promotion, and in so doing brings some new understanding to old debates. Starting with the realities of abuse rather than the liberal architecture of rights, it casts human rights as a language for probing the political dimensions of suffering. Seen in this context, the predominant Western models of right generate a substantial but also problematic and not always emancipatory array of practices. These models are far from answering the questions about the nature of political community that are raised by the systemic infliction of suffering. Rather than a simple message from ‘us’ to ‘them’, then, rights promotion is a long and difficult conversation about the relationship between political organisations and suffering. Three case studies are explored: the Tiananmen Square massacre, East Timor's violent modern history and the circumstances of indigenous Australians. The purpose of these discussions is not to elaborate on a new theory of rights, but to work towards rights practices that are more responsive to the spectrum of injury that we inflict and endure.
This book's argument takes as its point of departure the question of how to promote human rights observance in international life. The whole complex business of international human rights promotion is not approached here as a particularly ‘innocent’ enterprise. The argument here proceeds from the understanding, or the presumption, that questions of human rights are also part of the much broader context of people's repeated efforts to work against the systemic infliction of suffering in political life and to create conditions of life that do not turn upon the generation of such suffering. Within international politics, and according to the Westphalian order, a distinction, indeed a complex opposition, is commonly drawn between the proper domain of politics and that of ethics, with human rights standardly classed with ethics. This book explores three case studies: the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989, East Timor's violent modern history, and the health of Australian Aborigines.
. Akarli, The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861–1920
(London: I. B. Tauris, 1993), 28; A. J. Abraham, Lebanon in Modern Times
(Lanham: University Press of America, 2008), 63.
See G. Antonius, The Arab Awakening (Beirut: Khayats,
1939); B. Tibi, Arab Nationalism: A Critical Inquiry (London: Macmillan,
A. L. Tibawi, A ModernHistory of Syria
, 1993); Jonathan Schneer, ‘Hopes
deferred or shattered: the British Labour Left and the Third Force movement, 1945–49’, Journal of ModernHistory, 56:2 (1984), 197–226;
Peter Weiler, ‘British Labour and the Cold War: the foreign policy of the
Labour governments, 1945–1951’, Journal of British Studies, 26:1
(1987), 54–82, and Weiler, British Labour and the Cold War (Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1988). See also Alan Bullock, The Life and
Times of Ernest Bevin, vol. 3: Foreign Secretary, 1945–1951 (London:
Heinemann, 1983). There are also some excellent
nominal for much of its modernhistory’. 5
The physical geography of Kosovo is easy to understand. The
mountains ringing Kosovo make it a natural geographical unit. On its
southern rim are the Šar mountains – the highest range
– bordering Albania. On the western side are the Prokletije
(Accursed) mountains, so called because of the difficulty in crossing them.
On Kosovo’s eastern side stand the Skopska Crna Gora and, in
l’Escaut, Denain, Fourmies,
Gognies, Neuville-en-Ferrain, and ADN, 9R1229, Catillon.
4 ADN, 9R1197, Eccles, procès-verbal, Force spéciale de gendarmerie attachée
à l’Armée britannique, Leydet, 14 November 1918 (henceforth listed as
commune, name of investigator, report number when relevant, date).
Testimony of M. Durand, ‘interprète attaché au 12e [Lançier] Anglais’.
5 Sheila Fitzpatrick and Robert Gellately, ‘Introduction to the practices of
denunciation in modern European history’, Journal of ModernHistory, 68:4
(1996), p. 747.
6 Sheila Fitzpatrick
K. Rozario , ‘“ Delicious Horrors”: Mass Culture, the Red Cross,
and the Appeal of Modern American Humanitarianism ’, American Quarterly , 55 : 3 ( 2003 ), p. 417 – 55 ; M. Hilton , ‘ Ken
Loach and the Save the Children Film: Humanitarianism, Imperialism,
and the Changing Role of Charity in Postwar Britain ’, The Journal of ModernHistory , 87 : 2 ( 2015 ), pp. 357 – 94