Overriding politics and injustices
Vilho Amukwaya Shigwedha

In October 2011, twenty skulls of the Herero and Nama people were repatriated from Germany to Namibia. So far, fifty-five skulls and two human skeletons have been repatriated to Namibia and preparations for the return of more skulls from Germany were at an advanced stage at the time of writing this article. Nonetheless, the skulls and skeletons that were returned from Germany in the past have been disappointingly laden with complexities and politics, to such an extent that they have not yet been handed over to their respective communities for mourning and burials. In this context, this article seeks to investigate the practice of ‘anonymising’ the presence of human remains in society by exploring the art and politics of the Namibian state’s memory production and sanctioning in enforcing restrictions on the affected communities not to perform, as they wish, their cultural and ritual practices for the remains of their ancestors.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Transnational dynamics in post-genocidal restitutions
Elise Pape

Taking its starting point from a socio-anthropological study combining biographical interviews, semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations collected between 2016 and 2018 in Germany, France and the United States among Ovaherero and Nama activists, and also members of different institutions and associations, this article focuses on the question of human remains in the current struggle for recognition and reparation of the genocide of the Ovaherero and Nama from a transnational perspective. First, the text shows the ways in which the memory of human remains can be considered as a driving force in the struggle of the affected communities. Second, it outlines the main points of mismatches of perspective between descendants of the survivors and the responsible museums during past restitutions of human remains from German anthropological collections. Third, the article more closely examines the resources of Ovaherero in the United States in the struggle for recognition and reparation, the recent discovery of Namibian human remains in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the questions that it raises.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
The victims' struggle for recognition and recurring genocide memories in Namibia
Vilho Amukwaya Shigwedha

197 8 The return of Herero and Nama bones from Germany: the victims’ struggle for recognition and recurring genocide memories in Namibia Vilho Amukwaya Shigwedha Introduction In April 1904, General Adrian Dietrich Lothar von Trotha delivered his infamous order to exterminate the Herero and Nama people.1 The ‘Vernichtungsbefehl’, or extermination order, signifies Imperial Germany’s military response to the Herero and Nama popular revolts against Germany’s confiscation and domination of indigenous land. Close to 100,000 Herero and 20,000 Nama, mainly women and

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Curation and exhibition in the aftermath of genocide and mass-violence

This book addresses the practices, treatment and commemoration of victims’ remains in post- genocide and mass violence contexts. Whether reburied, concealed, stored, abandoned or publically displayed, human remains raise a vast number of questions regarding their legal, ethical and social uses.

Human Remains in Society will raise these issues by examining when, how and why bodies are hidden or exhibited. Using case studies from multiple continents, each chapter will interrogate their effect on human remains, either desired or unintended, on various political, cultural or religious practices. How, for instance, do issues of confiscation, concealment or the destruction of bodies and body parts in mass crime impact on transitional processes, commemoration or judicial procedures?

Revolutionary nationalism and women’s representation in Ngugi wa Thiong’o
Elleke Boehmer

:4 (1971), 30–1. In the 1980s David Cook and Michael Okenimkpe continued this trend by emphasising the vital role of women in Ngugi’s novels: David Cook and Michael Okenimkpe, Ngugi wa Thiong’o (London: Heinemann, 1983), pp. 135–6. Charles Nama and Tobe Levin also find inspirational value in Ngugi’s vision of women in revolt in: Charles A. Nama, ‘Daughters of Moombi’, and Tobe Levin, ‘Scapegoats of culture and cult’, both in Carole Boyce Davies and Anne Adams Graves (eds), Ngambika: Studies of Women in African Literature (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1986), pp. 139

in Stories of women
Open Access (free)
Élisabeth Anstett and Jean-Marc Dreyfus

agenda, genocides and episodes of mass violence are still both the source and the product of their know­ ledge. This dark memory of physical anthropology is displayed in 6 6   Human remains in society the chapter by David M.  Anderson and Paul J.  Lane on the fate of the skeletons of Mau Mau insurgents in Kenya, and similarly presented in the chapter by Vilho Amukwaya Shigwedha on the Hereros and Namas of Namibia murdered by German colonial troops. The collection of skeletons of these natives –​whose return from Germany is still ongoing –​was established at the

in Human remains in society
Open Access (free)
Beyond the burden of the real
Paul Henley

sky and water, purity and pollution. These include funeral chanting ( rama nama satya he – ‘God's Name is Truth’), the swishing of water, the barking of dogs and the squawking of birds. But of all the aural metaphors used in the film, undoubtedly the most striking is one that we hear for the first time about seven minutes into the film. Here it features over a shot of the prow of a boat which, together with a brief and difficult-to-discern shot of a dog gnawing at a half-submerged corpse, is inserted non-sequentially into the middle of an otherwise largely

in Beyond observation
Thinking, feeling, making
James Paz

, secan sundgebland since geweorðad, befongen freawrasnum, swa hine fyrndagum worhte wæpna smið, wundrum teode, besette swinlicum, þæt hine syðþan no brond ne beadomecas bitan ne meahton. Næs þæt þonne mætost mægenfultuma þæt him on ðearfe lah ðyle Hroðgares. Wæs þæm hæftmece Hrunting nama. Þæt wæs an foran

in Dating Beowulf
Robert Fine and Philip Spencer

Taner Akcam, A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility (London: Constable 2007), xvi. 80 Omer Bartov, ‘Extreme Violence and the Scholarly Community’, International Social Science Journal , 54 (174), 2002: 509–518, at 510. On connections between the genocides of the Herero and Nama and that of the Jews, see Jürgen Zimmerer ‘The Birth of the Ostland

in Antisemitism and the left
James Paz

hleobordum,  hyþe beþenede, gierede mec mid golde;  forþon me gliwedon wrætlic weorc smiþa,  wire bifongen. Nu þa gereno  ond se reada telg ond þa wuldorgesteald  wide mærað dryhtfolca helm,  nales dol wite. Gif min bearn wera  brucan willað, hy beoð þy gesundran  ond þy sigefæstran, heortum þy hwætran  ond þy hygebliþran, ferþe þy frodran,  habbaþ freonda þy ma, swæsra ond gesibbra,  soþra ond godra, tilra ond getreowra,  þa hyra tyr ond ead estum ycað  ond hy arstafum, lissum bilecgað  ond hi lufan fæþmum fæste clyppað.  Frige hwæt ic hatte, niþum to nytte.  Nama min is

in Nonhuman voices in Anglo-Saxon literature and material culture