Deposits, waste or ritual remnants?
Philippe Lefranc and Fanny Chenal

Among the numerous human remains found in circular pits belonging to the fourth millennium BCE cultures north of the Alps, there are many examples of bodies laid in random (or unconventional) positions. Some of these remains in irregular configurations, interred alongside an individual in a conventional flexed position, can be considered as a ‘funerary accompaniment’. Other burials, of isolated individuals or multiple individuals buried in unconventional positions, suggest the existence of burial practices outside of the otherwise strict framework of funerary rites. The focus of this article is the evidence recently arising from excavation and anthropological studies from the Upper Rhine Plain (Michelsberg and Munzingen cultures). We assume that these bodies in unconventional positions were not dumped as trash, but that they were a part of the final act of a complex ritual. It is hypothesised that these bodies, interpreted here as ritual waste, were sacrificial victims, and a number of possible explanations, including ‘peripheral accompaniment’ or victims of acts of war, are debated.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Was he more than just ‘Dr Took’?
Jonathan R. Trigg

contribution made by Toope to the formulation of archaeological knowledge is the record he made of the presence of an ancient cemetery in Wiltshire. We know that Toope was at the Sanctuary, Wiltshire (a double-ring stone circle of the Neolithic/ early Bronze Age period) in 1678, when he witnessed the discovery of human bones at the site – ‘Dr Toope found these bones Ao Dom 1678’ (Aubrey in Fowles, ed., 1980: 52–5) informs us of this, from his letter of 1685 showing that he was there again in that year.7 We are told that at this later point he was living in Marlborough (Long

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The permeable clusters of Hanna Rydh
Elisabeth Arwill-Nordbladh

two works appeared that differ from her previous and later production. In the Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, a recently established journal from the new museum in Stockholm of that name, she discussed questions concerning the symbolic meaning of ornament design in Chinese and Scandinavian Neolithic pottery (Rydh, 1929a). The results led to further investigations of the mythical meanings of seasonal rituals in China and Scandinavia (Rydh, 1931). These texts are seldom referred to by Swedish archaeologists, and they do not seem to have left much

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Where and when does the violence end?
David M. Anderson and Paul J. Lane

), 295–​314. 43 M. K. Jackes, ‘The Huron spine: a study based on the Kleinburg ossuary vertebrae’, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, 1977. 44 See also M.  K. Jackes, ‘Osteological evidence for Mesolithic and Neolithic violence:  problems of interpretation’, in M. Roksandic (ed.), Violent Interactions in the Mesolithic:  Evidence and Meaning (Oxford: Archaeopress –​BAR International Series 1237, 2004), pp. 23–​40. 45 J. Glazier, ‘Mbeere ancestors and the domestication of death’, Man, 19 (1984), 133–​47; J. M. Lonsdale, ‘The

in Human remains in society
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology
Monika Milosavljević

became established following the recognition of Vinča as a Neolithic site (as it is), not a supposed Ionian colony. The shift by itself was not the driving force behind the change, but rather its catalyst (Palavestra and Babić, 2016: 324). The work of Gordon Childe was well known to Vasić even prior to the 1920s, so much so that Childe had come to Vinča officially in 1926 to speak with Vasić. Childe reportedly considered Serbia to be one of the most significant areas for improving Europe’s understanding of prehistory (Nikolić and Vuković, 2008: 39–86). It must

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
A naturalistic approach
Gilberto Corbellini and Elisabetta Sirgiovanni

seems that the development of intelligence was a consequence of the extension of social groups and of the growth and development of new kinds of relationships among their members, apart Science, self-control and human freedom 205 from parental or sexual bonding. New interpersonal skills were required, such as the necessity to create alliances and to negotiate, to scrutinise others or manoeuvre them, in order to give rise to increasingly complex and relatively stable hierarchical social structures. From the Neolithic period, our ancestors must have possessed

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

the well-preserved human remains that are collectively known as ‘bog bodies’ (Glob [1969] 1971 ), described by rectors, surgeons, antiquarians and diarists, from the 1600s onwards (van der Sanden 1996 : 39), but undoubtedly disturbed and examined for as long as people have been cutting into the bog. Iron Age people themselves may well have been the first curators of such remains, given that examples from the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age have been recovered, as have numerous examples from the medieval and historic periods. Bogs are generally found in cool

in Bog bodies
Brian Hoggard

placed in buildings, presumably for magical purposes Such finds reported to the author include: dolls (one cut in half ), rats, toads, belt buckles, pipes, coins, knives and garments. Other finds worthy of note include a complete pig skeleton under a floor in Norfolk, a human skull and crossbones from beneath a nineteenth-century public house, an entire donkey buried under a barn, a dried puppy and several dried hares. Many artefacts from the Neolithic and Bronze Ages have also been found concealed in buildings. Stone axes and flint arrowheads were thought to be

in Beyond the witch trials
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

sand-bank islands and deliberately ‘weighted’ down due to the increased flooding (Dennison 2000 ). Formal log coffin burials dating from early Bronze Age Scotland are discussed in Cowie et al. ( 2011 : 6–7). At Methwold, no less than ten ‘bog bodies’ were found either with bronze awls or flint scrapers, representing formal burials from the Neolithic to the early Bronze Age (Briggs 1995 : 212–14). Balgone 1 and 2, found with animal bones and a jet belt slider (Cowie et al. 2011 : 29), and Soham Fen from the Cambridgeshire fens, interred with early Bronze Age

in Bog bodies
Films of the Sensory Ethnography Lab
Paul Henley

history of human–ovine symbiosis stretching back to the Neolithic era. In cutting the film, they explain, they sought to establish the sheep both as a collectivity and as individuals (as in the form of the bellwether ewe), even before introducing the people, who, for the first twenty minutes of the film are shown communicating only with the sheep (and one or two dogs). On account of this prominence of the sheep, particularly in the early part of the film, some reviewers have suggested that the film should be considered an important contribution to the current interest

in Beyond observation