146 CASE STUDIES
National machinery for gender equality
in Sweden and other Nordiccountries
In this chapter I want to describe the ‘Nordic model’ of
national machinery for gender equality. I want to show the
similarities between the countries, but also the differences.
The official Nordic cooperation on gender equality, conducted by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is based on the
development of pilot projects and reports on priority areas.
It provides excellent opportunities to develop new methods
and strategies and is a forum
The role of national machineries, as a way to promote the status of women, acquired international relevance during the World Conference on the International Women's Year, in Mexico City in 1975. This book reflects Division for the Advancement of Women's (DAW) long-standing interest in the area of national machineries, bringing together the experiences, research and insights of experts. The first part of the book sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the conceptual level. It reflects upon five aspects of democratization: devolution or decentralization; the role of political parties; monitoring and auditing systems; and the importance of increasing the presence of women within institutions of the state and government. The second part is a comparative analysis and sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the political level. A combination of factors, including civil society, state bodies and political actors, need to come together for national machineries to function effectively in the interest of gender equality. Next comes the 'lessons learned' by national machineries in mainstreaming gender. National machineries should have an achievable agenda, an important part of which must be 'a re-definition of gender issues. The third part contains case studies that build upon the specific experiences of national machineries in different countries. The successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming is also discussed.
examines the successful
experience of Nordiccountries in gender mainstreaming.
Åseskog links the attainment of gender equality with the
‘Nordic welfare state model’. She argues that in the Nordiccountries, the ‘political view prevails that society can
progress in a more democratic direction only when the competence, knowledge, experience and values of both women
and men are acknowledged and allowed to influence and
enrich developments in all spheres of society’ (p. 148). The
argument here is also that a consensus about the equality
of men and women within a political
What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?
, nationhood and race
Scholars in Black European Studies at locations including Germany, the Nordiccountries and the Netherlands have had to confront exceptionalism in order for the mainstreams of their own area studies to hear them (Loftsdóttir and Jensen (eds) 2012b ; Wekker 2016 ). Exceptionalism obscures the global pervasiveness of ‘race’ as a structure of thought by implying that race is not relevant for understanding somewhere because it was not directly involved in European colonialism; because it was colonised itself; or even, in the Dutch
This chapter discusses the Swedish reception of two articles that Rydh wrote
after contact with French international research. We meet Hanna Rydh in the
1920s when she was establishing her position as an archaeologist. She had to
navigate a male-oriented discipline, even though the archaeological scene
was not explicitly homogeneous. Other Nordic countries, and to some extent
Mediterranean and other European countries, were linked by scholarly
discussions. However, few thematic meetings took place between Scandinavians
and non-Scandinavians and few Scandinavians developed theoretical
approaches, except for theories about culture and people. In these articles
Rydh used Durkheimian ideas, for example that manifestations of group or
community life may be connected to a more general social order, and that
social structure and organisation can be observed and maintained on
different levels in social life. At that time, such thinking was unusual
within Swedish archaeology, and Rydh probably got her inspiration at
St-Germain-en-Laye. The harsh reception of the articles is discussed from
perspectives of intersecting axes of power such as profession, gender and
economy, relating these to various social clusters of which Rydh was a
they came from a work-poor household (see Table 13.1). Using data from 2005
and 2011, they show how during the Great Recession this higher likelihood of
being unemployed increased across all country groups, apart from in Eastern
Europe, albeit this occurred at different rates.
The results in Table 13.1 show how the risk of being unemployed for young
people was generally higher in traditional breadwinner and work-poor households, and that these risks increased between 2005 and 2011. In the Nordiccountries youth unemployment has increased most among traditional
Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.
, Northwestern Russia has
been more renowned for its environmental degradation than for its
abundant resources.18 Since Western journalists were gradually given
easier access to this heavily militarised region from the mid-1980s,
the black tree stumps of the dying forests around Nikel and
Monchegorsk have come to symbolise the sullen environmental
state of Russia to many in the West. The nickel smelters of these two
towns had virtually killed the forests surrounding them and served
as sources of pollution also for the neighbouring Nordiccountries
and other parts of Russia
concepts of incest and heresy also occurred in the other Nordiccountries and goes some way towards explaining why attitudes toward the crime of incest were especially strict in this region.
Several letters patent from the second half of the sixteenth century reiterate and emphasise that these crimes could only be atoned for by death, not by means of the payment of a fine.
Sveriges Rikes Lag ( The Statute
-first century, not least in the Nordiccountries,
where two anthologies were published (Allern & Pollack 2009,
2012c). The fact that media scandals are more and more often the
object of scientific analysis appears logical because public scandals
are increasing in number, keeping pace with the expansion of the
media industry. In a comparison among the Nordiccountries, some
researchers maintain that there has been a significant increase in
the number of scandals during the most recent decades, where Sweden
is in the lead with an almost fivefold increase during the period