Two case studies
Florence Carré
Aminte Thomann
, and
Yves-Marie Adrian

In Normandy, near Rouen, in Tournedos-sur-Seine and Val-de-Reuil, two adult skeletons thrown into wells during the Middle Ages have been studied. The wells are located at two separate sites just 3 km apart. Both sites consist of clustered settlements inhabited from the seventh to the tenth century and arranged around a cemetery. The backfill of the well shafts contains animal remains, but also partially or completely articulated human bodies. In Val-de-Reuil, the incomplete skeleton of a man, probably representing a secondary deposition, had traces of a violent blow on the skull, certainly with a blunt weapon. In Tournedos-sur-Seine, a woman thrown in headfirst had several impact points and bone fractures on the skull that could have been caused by perimortem mistreatment or a violent death. After a detailed description of the two finds and a contextualisation in the light of similar published cases, we will discuss the possible scenarios for the death and deposition of the individuals as well as their place in their communities.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal

This is a study of noblewomen in twelfth-century England and Normandy, and of the ways in which they exercised power. It draws on a mix of evidence to offer a reconceptualization of women's role in aristocratic society, and in doing so suggests new ways of looking at lordship and the ruling elite in the high Middle Ages. The book considers a wide range of literary sources—such as chronicles, charters, seals and governmental records—to draw out a detailed picture of noblewomen in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm. It asserts the importance of the life-cycle in determining the power of these aristocratic women, thereby demonstrating that the influence of gender on lordship was profound, complex and varied.

Open Access (free)
The historian and the male witch
Lara Apps
Andrew Gow

eliminate male witches as valid historical subjects by casting them as either mere collateral damage in the persecution of women, or as something completely different from female witches and therefore uninteresting. William Monter performs a more subtle redirection in his study of male witches in Normandy. This important article is one of the most thorough discussions of male witches, and does much to challenge the notion that early

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

recompense for this Orderic records her obituary, as it was inscribed upon her tomb, but he states this was ‘more through the partiality of friends than any just deserts of hers’. The obituary states that she gave good counsel, provided patronage and largesse, protected her patrimony, was intelligent, energetic in action and possessed honestas – honour, dignity.22 Orderic’s sharp comment, however, is reflective of the nature of contemporary politics in early twelfth-century Normandy as much as of his distrust of women. The Bellême family were the hereditary enemies of the

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Reading Close Combat
Barry Atkins

4 Replaying history: reading Close Combat Close Combat [inc. Close Combat (1996), Close Combat II: A Bridge Too Far (1997), Close Combat III: The Russian Front (1998), Close Combat IV: The Battle of the Bulge (1999), Close Combat: Invasion Normandy (2000)]. Real-time strategy/wargame. As the titles indicate, various episodes are set in different military campaigns during the Second World War. The game is split between the strategic management of large formations on campaign maps and the tactical control (in ‘real-time’) of small numbers of troops on battlefield

in More than a game
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

Count Geoffrey of Anjou.110 There is evidence to suggest that as a widow Mabel retained some authority as dowager countess. In 1147–48 conjointly with her son she restored lands to Jocelin bishop of Salisbury, a ‘significant policy decision’ in a charter which stressed her name first.111 In 1147–57 she cogranted with her son a charter in favour of St Gwynollyw’s church (Newport, Monmouthshire).112 There is charter evidence to suggest that Mabel acted in some official capacity for her son in Normandy. In 1147–57 Earl William granted protection to Savigny Abbey. The

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Jane Brooks

in war are of particular concern, as ‘combat is “naturally” a male occupation’ and the ‘presence of women threatens the masculine cohesion and efficiency of combat units’.39 She refers to John Laffin’s ideology that ‘war is a man’s business’.40 Nurses may not have been in combat positions, but by posting them en masse to forward areas the authorities placed them in danger. Both PMRAFNS Sister Iris Bower and QA Sister Mary Morris recalled the antipathy towards the nursing sisters going to Normandy in June 1944. However, in both cases the irritation that women had

in Negotiating nursing
Steve Sohmer

leave a while?’ (230). As to the particularity Shakespeare lends to Gournie – who appears here and never again – Braunmuller notes that ‘Shakespeare rarely names plebian characters so precisely unless there is an ulterior motive.’ 27 Shakespeare’s name, Gournie, points to France and Normandy, the ancestral home of the Careys. ‘Gournie’ is derived

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Open Access (free)
Susan M. Johns

-century England and Normandy it is significant that women had a role in the patronage of innovative forms of literature which affected the development of secular literature. Royal women or women of high status were in the vanguard of patronising these new forms of literature. As discussed earlier, Adela of Blois was a patron of poets, and writers were able to articulate a positive image of lay women as readers. Hugh of Fleury in the dedication of his Ecclesiastica Historia praised Adela’s generosity, intelligence and literary skills, and stated that women were often capable of

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.