This is a study of noblewomen in twelfth-century England and Normandy, and of the ways in which they exercised power. It draws on a mix of evidence to offer a reconceptualization of women's role in aristocratic society, and in doing so suggests new ways of looking at lordship and the ruling elite in the high Middle Ages. The book considers a wide range of literary sources—such as chronicles, charters, seals and governmental records—to draw out a detailed picture of noblewomen in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm. It asserts the importance of the life-cycle in determining the power of these aristocratic women, thereby demonstrating that the influence of gender on lordship was profound, complex and varied.

Open Access (free)
The historian and the male witch

eliminate male witches as valid historical subjects by casting them as either mere collateral damage in the persecution of women, or as something completely different from female witches and therefore uninteresting. William Monter performs a more subtle redirection in his study of male witches in Normandy. This important article is one of the most thorough discussions of male witches, and does much to challenge the notion that early

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)

recompense for this Orderic records her obituary, as it was inscribed upon her tomb, but he states this was ‘more through the partiality of friends than any just deserts of hers’. The obituary states that she gave good counsel, provided patronage and largesse, protected her patrimony, was intelligent, energetic in action and possessed honestas – honour, dignity.22 Orderic’s sharp comment, however, is reflective of the nature of contemporary politics in early twelfth-century Normandy as much as of his distrust of women. The Bellême family were the hereditary enemies of the

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)
Reading Close Combat

4 Replaying history: reading Close Combat Close Combat [inc. Close Combat (1996), Close Combat II: A Bridge Too Far (1997), Close Combat III: The Russian Front (1998), Close Combat IV: The Battle of the Bulge (1999), Close Combat: Invasion Normandy (2000)]. Real-time strategy/wargame. As the titles indicate, various episodes are set in different military campaigns during the Second World War. The game is split between the strategic management of large formations on campaign maps and the tactical control (in ‘real-time’) of small numbers of troops on battlefield

in More than a game
Open Access (free)

in war are of particular concern, as ‘combat is “naturally” a male occupation’ and the ‘presence of women threatens the masculine cohesion and efficiency of combat units’.39 She refers to John Laffin’s ideology that ‘war is a man’s business’.40 Nurses may not have been in combat positions, but by posting them en masse to forward areas the authorities placed them in danger. Both PMRAFNS Sister Iris Bower and QA Sister Mary Morris recalled the antipathy towards the nursing sisters going to Normandy in June 1944. However, in both cases the irritation that women had

in Negotiating nursing
Open Access (free)

Count Geoffrey of Anjou.110 There is evidence to suggest that as a widow Mabel retained some authority as dowager countess. In 1147–48 conjointly with her son she restored lands to Jocelin bishop of Salisbury, a ‘significant policy decision’ in a charter which stressed her name first.111 In 1147–57 she cogranted with her son a charter in favour of St Gwynollyw’s church (Newport, Monmouthshire).112 There is charter evidence to suggest that Mabel acted in some official capacity for her son in Normandy. In 1147–57 Earl William granted protection to Savigny Abbey. The

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm
Open Access (free)

-century England and Normandy it is significant that women had a role in the patronage of innovative forms of literature which affected the development of secular literature. Royal women or women of high status were in the vanguard of patronising these new forms of literature. As discussed earlier, Adela of Blois was a patron of poets, and writers were able to articulate a positive image of lay women as readers. Hugh of Fleury in the dedication of his Ecclesiastica Historia praised Adela’s generosity, intelligence and literary skills, and stated that women were often capable of

in Noblewomen, aristocracy and power in the twelfth-century Anglo-Norman realm

leave a while?’ (230). As to the particularity Shakespeare lends to Gournie – who appears here and never again – Braunmuller notes that ‘Shakespeare rarely names plebian characters so precisely unless there is an ulterior motive.’ 27 Shakespeare’s name, Gournie, points to France and Normandy, the ancestral home of the Careys. ‘Gournie’ is derived

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind

470 150 24 Venice 1550–1650 714 224 24 S. Sweden 1635–1754 77 25 25 Fribourg 1607–1683 103 59 36 Zeeland 1450–1729 19 11 37 Pays de Vaud 1539–1670 62 45 42 Finland 1520–1699 325 316 49 Burgundy 1580–1642 76 83 52 Estonia 1520–1729 77 116 60 Normandy 1564–1660 103 278 73 Iceland 1625–1685 10 110 92 Although it is difficult to draw certain kinds of specific conclusions from the comparison of such diverse data sets,several features stand out. First, for a phenomenon described by

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Open Access (free)
Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction

nurses 3 Negotiating nursing 1  Portrait of Nell Jarrett as a student nurse before the war. Here she is shown as the picture of regimented discipline in a starched uniform, closeted into the Nurses’ Home. 4 Introduction were evacuated with the British Expeditionary Force in the summer of 1940.24 Nurses were posted to Africa and the Middle East between 1940 and 1943 and then followed the Army through Italy in 1943 and 1944. Nursing sisters landed in Normandy in June 1944 only days after the Second Front opened and shadowed the troops across Europe and into Germany

in Negotiating nursing