Therkel Straede

This paper traces the massacres of Jews and Soviet prisoners of war in November 1941 in the city of Bobruisk, Eastern Belarus. Sparked by a current memorial at one of the killing sites, the author examines the historic events of the killings themselves and presents a micro level analysis of the various techniques for murdering and disposing of such large numbers of victims. A contrast will be shown between the types of actions applied to the victims by the German army, SS, police personnel and other local collaborators, reflecting an imposed racial hierarchisation even after their death.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

-established normative framework – the distinction between combatants and non-combatants was theorised by Enlightenment philosophers and legal experts (Grotius, Rousseau and Vatel, most notably). The safeguards granted to prisoners of war by the 1929 Convention were already a part of the 1785 Treaty of Amity and Commerce between Prussia and the United States, and long before the humanitarian conventions were formalised as such, the treatment of POWs had become a key political issue with the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

torture your citizens if you do not kill or torture ours. That is, the principle of reciprocity. 2 A classic example is prisoner protection. If you torture enemy combatants you have captured, your enemy will do the same to your POWs. The same logic goes for using chemical weapons and even nuclear weapons. This is how mutual deterrence works. This fits fully with the demands of sovereignty. Agreements that work meet the interests of both parties. This depends, of course, on the existence of a reasonable parity of capacity between states

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Theatre and the politics of engagement
Author: Simon Parry

This book is about science in theatre and performance. It explores how theatre and performance engage with emerging scientific themes from artificial intelligence to genetics and climate change. The book covers a wide range of performance forms from the spectacle of the Paralympics Opening Ceremony to Broadway musicals, from experimental contemporary performance and opera to educational theatre, Somali poetic drama and grime videos. It features work by pioneering companies including Gob Squad, Headlong Theatre and Theatre of Debate as well as offering fresh analysis of global blockbusters such as Wicked and Urinetown. The book offers detailed description and analysis of theatre and performance practices as well as broader commentary on the politics of theatre as public engagement with science. It documents important examples of collaborative practice with extended discussion of the Theatre of Debate process developed by Y Touring theatre company, exploration of bilingual theatre-making in East London and an account of how grime MCs and dermatologists ended up making a film together in Birmingham. The interdisciplinary approach draws on contemporary research in theatre and performance studies in combination with key ideas from science studies. It shows how theatre can offer important perspectives on what the philosopher of science Isabelle Stengers has called ‘cosmopolitics’. The book argues that theatre can flatten knowledge hierarchies and hold together different ways of knowing.

From Vietnam to the war in the Persian Gulf
John Storey

Beginning (1985), Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985), Platoon (1986), POW: The Escape (1986), The Hanoi Hilton (1987), Braddock: Missing In Action III (1988), Casualties of War (1989), Born on the Fourth of July (1989) and others, helped to create a memory of the war, and a desire to win the war retrospectively, that enabled Bush to say, with some credibility and conviction, that the Gulf War

in Memory and popular film
Jane Brooks

of the primary data related to pain management is in fact about German patients’ pain, although there is no indication of why this should be. The care of prisoners of war (POWs) could be a significant challenge to the nursing and medical staff and not all were keen to offer German POWs the same care that they provided to their allied patients.126 Margaret Thomas recalled a sister who would not give her German patient sufficient morphia, despite his ‘bad shoulder injury and his penis was shattered, he was an awful mess and she wouldn’t give him any [morphia]. If she

in Negotiating nursing
Open Access (free)
Jane Brooks

Negotiating nursing specific hospitals, such as the No. 1 Mobile Military Hospital, the first one of its kind to post female nurses to its contingent. A more detailed study of the work of military nurses with the female civilian inmates of Japanese POW camps would also provide additional important knowledge, as would an exploration of nurses’ work with psychiatrically damaged soldier-­patients. Nevertheless, despite these limitations, the value of this book lies in its examination of the manner in which nurses engaged with their patients and the innovative methods they

in Negotiating nursing
Open Access (free)
How grave robbers, activists, and foreigners ended official silence about Stalin’s mass graves near Kiev
Karel C. Berkhoff

in Russia. Polish POW graves were also found at Kharkiv’s Piatykhatky grounds, and the city administration there recognized them in 1991 with a memorial.70 The Polish Public Prosecutor’s Office in Warsaw received Lysenko in 1990, and Poland’s Prosecutor Jacek Wilczur visited Bykivnia.71 The very first Polish religious rite took place there in May, and that same year Stanislav Shalatsky, a Pole from Ukraine, handed Pope John Paul II in Rome a capsule with Bykivnia earth.72 But the authorities of independent Ukraine continued to claim that Bykivnia held only the

in Human remains and identification
Jane Brooks

of a contingent of Army nurses (QARANC) looking after the wounded from Burma. Excitement about the end of the war was followed by panic as an air of uncertainty prevailed.8 Anxieties about the end of the war resound through many of the nurses’ testimonies. Sister Catherine Butland reflected on it being ‘regretful that the seven months just past could not go in indefinitely, though very glad the fighting was over’.9 However, for many nurses the war did not end in 1945, but as late as 1947. In the latter months and immediate post-­war period, the needs of POWs

in Negotiating nursing
Open Access (free)
The discovery, commemoration and reinterment of eleven Alsatian victims of Nazi terror, 1947– 52
Devlin M. Scofield

resistance fighters to be assimilated with soldiers of the regular army, both during and after the war, invalidated all legal claims for reparation payments, since they should in consequence, and despite the particular conditions of their detention, be considered PoWs for whom international law never foresaw reparation’. 55 See Goschler, Wiedergutmachung. 56 L’Alsace, 15 January 1952. C 20/​1 Nr. 680, StA Freiburg. The article specifically mentioned that the president of South Baden, Leo Wohleb, had personally written to the French Landeskommissar Pierre Pène expressing

in Human remains in society