Open Access (free)
Justin A Joyce, Douglas Field, and Dwight A McBride
James Baldwin Review
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

final say in assessing ‘military necessity’, a key concept naturally covered by humanitarian law. A few years later, the German command used the Geneva Convention to justify their violence in putting down francs-tireurs in the Franco-Prussian War, claiming that France had violated the agreement by using irregular combatants. Shortly thereafter, the nascent humanitarian law was again caught flat-footed during the siege of Paris, in a war where the concept of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

difficulties encountered. My analysis draws on a range of surveys and documentation. 1 I carried out fieldwork on missions conducted between 2012 and 2018 in the towns of Ain Issa, Aleppo, Al-Bab, Atmeh, Kobani, Manbij, Raqqa and Tabqa in the north of Syria. I also had access to Médecins Sans Frontières’ (MSF) archives in Paris (preparatory documents for reports and speeches as well as emails, press releases and official correspondence). And over this same period, I monitored the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

hostile. La protection des entreprises à l’international ( Paris : Ministère de l’intérieur ). Delisle , G. ( 2016 ), S’enfuir. Récit d’un otage ( Paris : Dargaud ). Dettmer , J. ( 2014 ), ‘ The Media Blackout on Hostages

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

leadership of the WHO and the Congolese Minister of Health, Dr Oly Ilunga ( Dowell, 2018 ). Before any critical reflection could be initiated, attention moved to Nord Kivu. First Phase of the Kivu Epidemic Chasing after Cases MSF had long been familiar with Nord Kivu, first intervening in the province in the early 1990s. During one reflection exercise held at MSF’s Paris

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
John J. Hurt

6 Confronting the Parlement of Paris, 1718 The menacing appearance of d’Argenson, the new keeper of the seals and president of the Council of Finances, so frightened contemporaries that they called him Rhadamanthus, a judge of the underworld in Greek mythology known for his stern sense of justice. But d’Argenson’s efficiency as chief of police for Paris, his talent for making rapid decisions and his ability, even at the age of sixty-five, to work through the day and into the night, or vice versa, also won their respect. Experienced in government and an early

in Louis XIV and the parlements
Editors’ Introduction
Marc Le Pape and Michaël Neuman

All of the authors contributing to this issue of Journal of Humanitarian Affairs (JHA) agreed to write articles elaborating on the presentations they gave at the international conference hosted by FMSH (Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme) and MSF-CRASH (Médecins Sans Frontières – Centre de Réflexion sur l’Action et les Savoirs Humanitaires) on 20–22 March 2019 at the Hôtel de Lauzun in Paris. The title of the conference was ‘Extreme violence: investigate, rescue, judge. Syria, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo’. This issue also includes a recent text

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Realistic Ambition?
Pierre Mendiharat, Elba Rahmouni, and Léon Salumu

Despite a concerted international effort in recent decades that has yielded significant progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS, the disease continues to kill large numbers of people. Although there is still no definitive cure or vaccine, UNAIDS has set an ambitious goal of ending the epidemic by 2030, specifically via its 90-90-90 (‘treatment cascade’) strategy – namely that 90 per cent of those with HIV will know their status, 90 per cent of those who know their status will be on antiretroviral therapy and 90 per cent of those on antiretroviral therapy will have an undetectable viral load. These bold assumptions were put to the test in a five-year pilot project launched in June 2014 by MSF and Kenya’s Ministry of Health in Ndhiwa district, where an initial NHIPS 1 study by Epicentre (MSF’s epidemiology centre) in 2012 revealed some of the world’s highest HIV incidence and prevalence, and a poor treatment cascade. Six years later, a new Epicentre study, NHIPS 2, showed that the 90-90-90 target had been more than met. What explains this ‘success’? And given the still-high incidence, is it truly a success? MSF Deputy Director of Operations Pierre Mendiharat and physician Léon Salumu, Head of MSF France Kenya programmes, discuss the political, scientific and operational challenges of the Ndhiwa project in an interview conducted by Elba Rahmouni.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean and Michaël Neuman
Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The Journal of Humanitarian Affairs is an exciting, new open access journal hosted jointly by The Humanitarian Affairs Team at Save the Children UK, and Centre de Réflexion sur l’Action et les Savoirs Humanitaires MSF (Paris) and the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute at the University of Manchester. It will contribute to current thinking around humanitarian governance, policy and practice with academic rigour and political courage. The journal will challenge contributors and readers to think critically about humanitarian issues that are often approached from reductionist assumptions about what experience and evidence mean. It will cover contemporary, historical, methodological and applied subject matters and will bring together studies, debates and literature reviews. The journal will engage with these through diverse online content, including peer reviewed articles, expert interviews, policy analyses, literature reviews and ‘spotlight’ features.

Our rationale can be summed up as follows: the sector is growing and is facing severe ethical and practical challenges. The Journal of Humanitarian Affairs will provide a space for serious and inter-disciplinary academic and practitioner exchanges on pressing issues of international interest.

The journal aims to be a home and platform for leading thinkers on humanitarian affairs, a place where ideas are floated, controversies are aired and new research is published and scrutinised. Areas in which submissions will be considered include humanitarian financing, migrations and responses, the history of humanitarian aid, failed humanitarian interventions, media representations of humanitarianism, the changing landscape of humanitarianism, the response of states to foreign interventions and critical debates on concepts such as resilience or security.