chap 6 27/5/03 11:55 am Page 212 6 The German Land parliaments (Landtage) Historical development In the Kaiserreich of 1871–1918, the Constitution gave the central government only a brief catalogue of powers, with all other powers reserved for the states; however, the central state also had concurrent powers and implied powers. Over time the national government assumed more powers through constitutional changes and legislation which also had to be passed by a second chamber, the Bundesrat, that represented the mostly monarchical governments in the states

in The Länder and German federalism

chap 7 27/5/03 11:56 am Page 243 7 The Land parliaments deputies in Germany Introduction When one reads of European parliaments and their members, one normally thinks of the national level. This is understandable with respect to the mostly unitary political systems, which have only national parliaments. But some of these states, such as Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and Belgium, are federal systems, and some others, such as Spain, have a semifederal territorial organization. In these systems far more parliamentarians are members of regional parliaments

in The Länder and German federalism
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King and politicians 1760-1770

The eighteenth century was long deemed ‘the classical age of the constitution’ in Britain, with cabinet government based on a two-party system of Whigs and Tories in Parliament, and a monarchy whose powers had been emasculated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689. This study furthers the work of Sir Lewis Namier, who, in 1929, argued that no such party system existed, George III was not a cypher, and that Parliament was an administration composed of factions and opposition. George III is a high-profile and well-known character in British history, whose policies have often been blamed for the loss of Britain's American colonies, around whom rages a perennial dispute over his aims: was he seeking to restore royal power or merely exercising his constitutional rights? This is a chronological survey of the first ten years of his reign through power politics and policy making.

The Tories after 1997
Editors: Mark Garnett and Philip Lynch

The Conservative Party's survival as a significant political force was now open to serious question for the first time since the crisis over the Corn Laws. The Labour Party has commanded a fairly consistent level of attention, whether in office or in opposition. But it seems that the Conservatives are fated to be regarded either as unavoidable or irrelevant. This book presents an analysis that suggests that the party leader plays a less important role in Conservative recoveries than a distinctive policy programme and an effective party organization. It examines the Conservative position on a series of key issues, highlighting the difficult dilemmas which confronted the party after 1997, notably on economic policy. New Labour's acceptance of much of the main thrust of Thatcherite economic policy threw the Conservatives off balance. The pragmatism of this new position and the 'In Europe, not run by Europe' platform masked a significant move towards Euro-skepticism. The book also traces how the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Parties adapted to the creation of the Scottish Parliament, exploring the re-organisation of the Scottish party, its electoral fortunes and political prospects in the new Scottish politics. It examines issues of identity and nationhood in Conservative politics in the 1997-2001 period, focusing on the 'English Question' and the politics of 'race'. The predictable results of the Conservatives' failure to develop an attractive, consistent narrative are then analysed. Right-wing populist parties with charismatic leaders enjoyed some electoral success under the proportional representation systems in 2002.

This book provides an introduction to how the Länder (the sixteen states of Germany) function, not only within the country itself, but also within the wider context of Europe's political affairs. It looks at the Länder in the constitutional order of the country, as well as their political and administrative systems, and also discusses their organisation and administration, together with their financial administration. Finally, the book looks at the role of political parties and elections in the Länder, and considers the importance of their parliaments.

Executive versus legislative power

parliamentary regimes.2 As Zvi Gitelman notes: ‘Parliamentarism is generally more favourable to democratic consolidation than presidentialism because it gives the political system greater efficacy, the capacity to construct majorities and the ability to terminate a crisis of government without it becoming a crisis of the regime’.3 One of the major problems with presidential systems is that they are, ‘prone to creating two opposing centres of power’, and often ‘legislative paralysis can set in when neither parliament nor president are strong enough to break the deadlocks which

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
From disaster to devolution and beyond

September 1997, so that Conservative opposition to a Scottish Parliament became an anachronism and devolution was set to become a reality. The party’s prospects took an upward turn when it gained seats in the new Scottish Parliament in the May election of 1999 and from then on, it has faced a radically different political environment to that which existed previously. After 1999, bereft of Westminster representation, the devolved parliament was the only show in town for the Tories north of the Border, with an untested leader, a weakened party organisation, declining levels

in The Conservatives in Crisis

Institutions Issues concerning of the European women Union Institutions of the European Union 211 14 ➤ Introductory information concerning the study of institutions ➤ Analysis of the concepts used to assess the nature and operation of the institutions ➤ Descriptions of the role, composition and operation of the main institutions: the Commission, Parliament, Council of Ministers and Court of Justice ➤ Analysis of some of the problems and issues concerning the institutions ➤ Brief descriptions of the role of other, less central institutions of the EU PROBLEMS

in Understanding British and European political issues
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Domestic change through European integration

TEU. In June 1992, the Austrian government declared its ‘preparedness to participate in the CFSP and in its dynamic development actively and in a spirit of solidarity’.10 Membership of the Union required far-reaching constitutional changes for Austria, a two-thirds majority in the ‘Nationalrat’ (the Austrian Parliament), but also approval by the ‘Bundesrat’ (second chamber of the Austrian Parliament), and finally a popular referendum.11 Considering that there was quite strong popular opposition (between 38 per cent in spring 1989 and more than 40 per cent in 1991

in Fifteen into one?
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(MinisterPräsident) had been guilty of a serious abuse of power (the Barschel/ Pfeiffer affair) led to a thorough revision of that Land’s Constitution which included both far-reaching plebiscitary (direct democracy) features and provisions strengthening the parliament’s control over the government (cabinet). The reforms contained in this Constitution have since had a significant impact not only on the new Länder in the East but also on Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, and Rhineland-Palatinate in the West. The second cause of a strong interest in Land constitutions was, of course

in The Länder and German federalism