Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 6 27/5/03 11:55 am Page 212 6 The German Land parliaments (Landtage) Historical development In the Kaiserreich of 1871–1918, the Constitution gave the central government only a brief catalogue of powers, with all other powers reserved for the states; however, the central state also had concurrent powers and implied powers. Over time the national government assumed more powers through constitutional changes and legislation which also had to be passed by a second chamber, the Bundesrat, that represented the mostly monarchical governments in the states

in The Länder and German federalism
Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 7 27/5/03 11:56 am Page 243 7 The Land parliaments deputies in Germany Introduction When one reads of European parliaments and their members, one normally thinks of the national level. This is understandable with respect to the mostly unitary political systems, which have only national parliaments. But some of these states, such as Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and Belgium, are federal systems, and some others, such as Spain, have a semifederal territorial organization. In these systems far more parliamentarians are members of regional parliaments

in The Länder and German federalism
Sean Healy
Victoria Russell

). House of Lords ( 2016 ), ‘ Operation Sophia, the EU’s Naval Mission in the Mediterranean: An Impossible Challenge ’, (accessed 7 October 2020 ). Human Rights Watch ( 2017 ), EU: Draft Code for Sea Rescues

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Aid Industry and the ‘Me Too’ Movement
Charlotte Lydia Riley

International Development, 2017–19 Session, SEA0037 , (accessed 1 October 2020 ). Baughan , E. and Fiori , J. ( 2015 ), ‘ Save the Children, the Humanitarian Project, and the Politics of

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

developed to react to the usual, much smaller epidemics of the disease ( MSF, 2016a ). When in 2014 recommendations were made at the European Parliament that ‘the lead [for the response] should be given to an NGO [non-governmental organisation] – in this case, Médecins Sans Frontières’, MSF directors insisted that it had ‘neither the legitimacy nor the skills nor the desire to take on the political leadership of the Ebola crisis in West Africa’ ( Nierle

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
King and politicians 1760-1770

The eighteenth century was long deemed ‘the classical age of the constitution’ in Britain, with cabinet government based on a two-party system of Whigs and Tories in Parliament, and a monarchy whose powers had been emasculated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689. This study furthers the work of Sir Lewis Namier, who, in 1929, argued that no such party system existed, George III was not a cypher, and that Parliament was an administration composed of factions and opposition. George III is a high-profile and well-known character in British history, whose policies have often been blamed for the loss of Britain's American colonies, around whom rages a perennial dispute over his aims: was he seeking to restore royal power or merely exercising his constitutional rights? This is a chronological survey of the first ten years of his reign through power politics and policy making.

The Tories after 1997
Editors: and

The Conservative Party's survival as a significant political force was now open to serious question for the first time since the crisis over the Corn Laws. The Labour Party has commanded a fairly consistent level of attention, whether in office or in opposition. But it seems that the Conservatives are fated to be regarded either as unavoidable or irrelevant. This book presents an analysis that suggests that the party leader plays a less important role in Conservative recoveries than a distinctive policy programme and an effective party organization. It examines the Conservative position on a series of key issues, highlighting the difficult dilemmas which confronted the party after 1997, notably on economic policy. New Labour's acceptance of much of the main thrust of Thatcherite economic policy threw the Conservatives off balance. The pragmatism of this new position and the 'In Europe, not run by Europe' platform masked a significant move towards Euro-skepticism. The book also traces how the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Parties adapted to the creation of the Scottish Parliament, exploring the re-organisation of the Scottish party, its electoral fortunes and political prospects in the new Scottish politics. It examines issues of identity and nationhood in Conservative politics in the 1997-2001 period, focusing on the 'English Question' and the politics of 'race'. The predictable results of the Conservatives' failure to develop an attractive, consistent narrative are then analysed. Right-wing populist parties with charismatic leaders enjoyed some electoral success under the proportional representation systems in 2002.

Executive versus legislative power
Cameron Ross

parliamentary regimes.2 As Zvi Gitelman notes: ‘Parliamentarism is generally more favourable to democratic consolidation than presidentialism because it gives the political system greater efficacy, the capacity to construct majorities and the ability to terminate a crisis of government without it becoming a crisis of the regime’.3 One of the major problems with presidential systems is that they are, ‘prone to creating two opposing centres of power’, and often ‘legislative paralysis can set in when neither parliament nor president are strong enough to break the deadlocks which

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
From disaster to devolution and beyond
Peter Lynch

September 1997, so that Conservative opposition to a Scottish Parliament became an anachronism and devolution was set to become a reality. The party’s prospects took an upward turn when it gained seats in the new Scottish Parliament in the May election of 1999 and from then on, it has faced a radically different political environment to that which existed previously. After 1999, bereft of Westminster representation, the devolved parliament was the only show in town for the Tories north of the Border, with an untested leader, a weakened party organisation, declining levels

in The Conservatives in Crisis
Neil McNaughton

Institutions Issues concerning of the European women Union Institutions of the European Union 211 14 ➤ Introductory information concerning the study of institutions ➤ Analysis of the concepts used to assess the nature and operation of the institutions ➤ Descriptions of the role, composition and operation of the main institutions: the Commission, Parliament, Council of Ministers and Court of Justice ➤ Analysis of some of the problems and issues concerning the institutions ➤ Brief descriptions of the role of other, less central institutions of the EU PROBLEMS

in Understanding British and European political issues