Insights from 'Africa's World War'

Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making addresses debates on liberal peace and the policies of peacebuilding through a theoretical and empirical study of resistance in peacebuilding contexts. Examining the case of ‘Africa’s World War’ in the DRC, it locates resistance in the experiences of war, peacebuilding and state-making by exploring discourses, violence and everyday forms of survival as acts that attempt to challenge or mitigate such experiences. The analysis of resistance offers a possibility to bring the historical and sociological aspects of both peacebuilding and the case of the DRC, providing new nuanced understanding of these processes and the particular case.

Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

1 Legitimacy, violence and extraction in the practice of building states [T]o govern men as to produce and collect goods is inseparable from the specific modes of the distribution and modulation of violence. (Mbembe 1991a: 7) W Ruling over people hatever other challenges peacebuilding faces, whether administrative reform, economic reactivation or the stabilisation of conflicts, it poses peacebuilders with the basic question of how to assert state rule. Peacebuilding has a state-making ethos and, as Weber argues, states are ‘associations of rule’ (1978: 51

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

that is experienced today still shows aspects of those several layers of conflict. The various forms of resistance linked to how conflict and peacebuilding have affected the everyday lives of popular classes predate the conflict. Looking at the coercive and extractive practices of states writ large, resistance shows that it follows patterns in state–society relations. Resistance also shows the particular configuration the that Congolese state has taken as a result of colonisation, decolonisation and the Cold War. For Schatzberg, this configuration made the 75

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

7 Everyday resistance and everyday order in world politics D espite the increasing involvement of peacebuilding strategies in spheres of sovereign authority after the Cold War, and despite the fact that these strategies aim to reconstitute state authority, peacebuilding continues to be thought of as external to the conflicts and violent dynamics it addresses. The critical peace and conflict studies literature has challenged this vision, but in trying to understand the power dynamics in peacebuilding processes it has reified a binary vision by analysing these

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
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Resistance and the liberal peace: a missing link
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

state failure or a problem of identity among the different ethnic groups in the country. Embedded in them is a criticism both of the actors of the conflict and of those who are involved in the peacebuilding process. They therefore evoke the different forms of resistance against lack of progress to solve the political and economic issues that underpin the conflict. An analysis of these forms of resistance allows understanding of that experience, the conflict and the process of peacebuilding. Building peace is a political process where the distribution of political and

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

2 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance: a view from below T What is everyday resistance? he informalities, ambiguities and contradictions that peacebuilding runs into reflect the political nature of the process. These become visible when examined from the everyday practices of the actors involved. In IR the everyday has become synonymous with the makings of actual subjects in their most quotidian roles (Autesserre 2014; Hobson and Seabrooke 2007; Mitchell 2011b; Neumann 2002). This is not so much a new field of study, as it represents a common call

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

and religious equipment. (Scott 1985: 331) A Statebuilders and state-recipients, a pose uthority is generally claimed with an underlying morality. Peacebuilding, and the reconstruction of state authority, is deployed as the best solution to the problems of war, authoritarianism and poverty (Chandler 2010a: 1). In Eastern DRC this authority claim has materialised as a discourse of protection and social change. Against this discursive construction, mockery, denigration and slandering operate as an intentional mechanism to deny the legitimacy and authority of

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

Nzinga Panju was opposed to Portuguese occupation in his kingdom; in 1682, the prophet Chimpa Vita resisted against the implantation of foreign power in the kingdom of Kongo, she was burnt alive. In 1942, in the kingdom of the Bahunde, where the Bakumu live, in Masisi, in one of the hunters’ villages, in Ntoto, Mandayi told Sindikiza that his brother Yusufu Kitawala in the cultural struggle against foreign 127 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making occupation had a formula that protected men against all attacks from bladed or fire weapons by the enemy

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

6 Creative survival as subversion I Solidarities and creative tactics against ‘conditions of death’1 n the DRC, the exercise and consolidation of state authority does not necessarily imply social transformation or a real commitment of the state to impose itself but, rather, the management of state absences and state presences through a plurality of authorities. Still, the patterns of coercion and extraction that have followed from the 20 years of conflict, with the different state-making and peacebuilding processes, determine the conditions for the

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

to see that the (post)colonial run-up to genocide was a story of too much intervention, even in the name of democracy. During my doctoral research, I rediscovered the case of Somaliland. A self-declared independent republic in the north-western corner of Somalia, Somaliland had declined US and UN interventions at the beginning of the 1990s, apart from specific assistance (the clean-up of landmines, for example). Instead, it took care of its peace-building process internally and with its diaspora. Over the years, even though the international

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