the State Department, together with the Pentagon, the CIA
and other security and intelligence organs of the US government, as well as the Department of
Commerce and the Department of the Treasury. To grasp its importance, it is necessary to
distinguish it from the eccentric and unpredictable character of Donald Trump. But it is also
necessary to recognise that it would take a character like Trump to bring about such a break from
the history and tradition of US foreign policy.
From a strictly academic perspective, the new strategy document looks
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian
its advisors, thirty is the
threshold at which negative reports begin to appear in the press ( Weizmann, 2010 ).
Another example is modern flamethrowers, which were first used by Germany in 1915 and
became widespread thereafter; in the 1970s, they came to symbolise the brutality of
the Vietnam War. The famous photograph of the burned little girl fleeing a napalm
attack aroused general indignation, especially in the United States, and impelled
the Pentagon to ban
Eurasian security governance has received increasing attention since 1989. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the institution that best served the security interests of the West in its competition with the Soviet Union, is now relatively ill-equipped resolve the threats emanating from Eurasia to the Atlantic system of security governance. This book investigates the important role played by identity politics in the shaping of the Eurasian security environment. It investigates both the state in post-Soviet Eurasia as the primary site of institutionalisation and the state's concerted international action in the sphere of security. This investigation requires a major caveat: state-centric approaches to security impose analytical costs by obscuring substate and transnational actors and processes. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon marked the maturation of what had been described as the 'new terrorism'. Jervis has argued that the western system of security governance produced a security community that was contingent upon five necessary and sufficient conditions. The United States has made an effort to integrate China, Russia into the Atlantic security system via the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council. The Black Sea Economic Cooperation has become engaged in disseminating security concerns in fields such as environment, energy and economy. If the end of the Cold War left America triumphant, Russia's new geopolitical hand seemed a terrible demotion. Successfully rebalancing the West and building a collaborative system with Russia, China, Europe and America probably requires more wisdom and skill from the world's leaders.
Eurasia and the transnational
terrorist threats to Atlantic security
The terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center and the
Pentagon were not only the most audacious and successful terrorist attacks
the world has yet seen, but also marked the maturation of what had been
described as the ‘new terrorism’. It was a maturation in several senses. In the
first place it revealed that trends identified by astute specialists such as
Walter Laqueur, Bruce Hoffman and Ian Lesser were, in fact, well
ability to fight large wars along both the central front in Europe and in East Asia. This “two war” posture had defined Pentagon strategy for the past six decades. He also indicated that the defence triad of air, naval and land forces was outmoded. 3 The seemingly endless European crisis over national debt in Greece, Portugal and Spain, with the future of the euro and the European Union itself hanging in the balance, added its own punctuation to the apparent eclipse of Europe and the dawn of a new Pacific era. Still, it may just have been that Panetta had run some new
restraining power on NATO planners, particularly after the first couple of
weeks … but the net effect was generally to push back the bombing of
some specific targets at most a few days’. 28 In the US case, all suggested targets
generated by NATO planners and hence sent up to SACEUR were passed on by
General Clark – wearing his USEUCOM hat – to the Pentagon which,
in turn, generally passed them all the way up to the President. 29
-Soviet who ‘sees the world as a KGB officer
would’, someone who believes his own propaganda and lies, and is
afraid of the democratic breakthrough in Ukraine that exposes his own
lack of legitimacy. 68 In February
2015, a US Pentagon-sponsored report surfaced suggesting that Putin
suffered from autism – which could, some observers asserted,
explain his ‘authoritarian style’ and ‘obsession
economic competition from Europe and Japan which were less willing than heretofore to defer to the US. Indeed, a Pentagon planning document in the late 1980s discussed the need for the US to defend its hegemonic power from such competitors. At a time when some of the other ingredients of US economic hegemony, such as financial assets and trading capacity, had declined, control of Middle East oil, including petrodollar recycling, was an all-the-more crucial instrument of hegemony and source of leverage over economic competitors.
It is no accident
happening in the
defence laboratories. But, as Kosovo shows, developments in areas such
as aviation power came to play a crucial role in how the war developed.
From the White House one could send a message to the Pentagon saying
that one was going to bomb without losing either personnel or planes.
The military simulated several war operations to estimate the minimum
height for planes in order not to be shot
pressure, Australia has refrained from sailing within twelve nautical miles of the new islands created by China’s South China Sea terra formation projects in the strategic triangle of the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, and Scarborough Shoal. While Australia’s decision to lease the port of Darwin to a Chinese commercial entity was criticised stridently by Pentagon officials, more recently Turnbull’s conservative government has also progressively reviewed Chinese investment in Australia through a strategic prism. The government, increasingly sensitised to the broader