In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict
(1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the
States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised
sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the
main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and
re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues
underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of
human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return
of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for
Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their
status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the
internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which
permeate the social fabric?
Dispelling Misconceptions about Sexual Violence against Men and Boys in
Conflict and Displacement
Heleen Touquet, Sarah Chynoweth, Sarah Martin, Chen Reis, Henri Myrttinen, Philipp Schulz, Lewis Turner, and David Duriesmith
( Christian et al. ,
2011 ; Chynoweth, 2019a ). In
Peru, Syria and northern Uganda, men and boys were sexually violated in their homes
and in public, in addition to imprisonment ( Leiby, 2012 ; Chynoweth, 2017 ;
Schulz, 2018 ). In Somalia and South
Sudan, sexual victimisation of men and boys has been documented during flight, at
checkpoints and border crossings ( Chynoweth,
2019b ; Nagai et al. ,
2008 ). In Liberia and
Multimedia kit produced by the NFB and CIDA in 1990. Using the themes of ‘Water: The Wonder Fluid’, ‘Food for Thought’, ‘Health Matters’, and ‘Learning from Each Other’, the kit aimed at ‘exploring life in developing countries with children in Botswana, the Ivory Coast, Peru and Thailand’. It contained a Teacher’s Guide booklet of 64 pages, four posters drawn by Lucie Chantal and Stephen Clarke, three copies of the magazine Under the Same Sun , four audio cassettes, and four fixed projections.
Source: ARC, Marc Rockbrune Fonds. Photo: D. Marshall
( Oxford : Oxford University Press ).
Stefanowicz , C. ( 2011 ), ‘ gacaca Highlights Failure to Deal with RPF Crimes’ , Think Africa Press , 8 March .
Theidon , K. ( 2006 ), ‘Justice in Transition: The Micropolitics of Reconciliation in Postwar Peru’ , Journal of Conflict Resolution , 50 : 3 , 433 – 57 .
Thomson , S. M. ( 2011 ), ‘The Darker Side of Transitional Justice: The Power Dynamics behind Rwanda’s gacaca Courts’ , Africa , 81 : 3 , 373 – 90 .
Thomson , S. M. ( 2013 ), Whispering Truth to Power: Everyday Resistance to
Cooperation in Jesús de Machaca in Bolivia
José Blanes Jiménez and Edgar Antonio Pabón
Through its European Union-funded project, Intercultural Conflicts, a democratic
and participative regional response from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, the Centro
Boliviano de Estudios Multidisciplinarios (CEBEM) established a cooperation
programme with other institutions in Ecuador and Peru oriented towards strengthening the capacities of indigenous peoples and their leaders in the management of
their territories. The programme takes place in the particular context
The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand,
and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that
violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state)
health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence
against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human
rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence
against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of
the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the
horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’
dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional
and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept
of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence
against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on
the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised
in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an
innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due
diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment).
The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the
ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).
By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this
volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of
violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities
across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications
of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the
study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical
significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the
myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and
non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the
Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex
than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance.
Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale
violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum,
ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was
privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early
modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent
forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in
activities not officially classed as war.
Corpse-work in the prehistory of political boundaries
contract lingered long after the movement’s demise? Human corpses
served the ends of drawing insurgent territory and forging new law.
Once upon a recent time what is now the region’s political pre-history
had profound impacts upon relations between people and property.
I say prehistory because, for Huallaga communities, that era falls on
the distant ‘other side’ of the new legal situation founded through
the Peruvian state’s military defeat of the Shining Path – an imposition engendering its own silences and forms of oblivion through
different tactics where corpses too
Guatemala) and South
America (principally modern Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia), all suffered
from vertiginous demographic decline during the sixteenth century, caused by
successive epidemics of Old World diseases to which native Americans had no
immunity. And, as native numbers fell, resistance to Spanish rule was weakened
by the destructuration of indigenous communities, the elimination of traditional
leaders, and the willingness of native elites to accommodate to Spanish rule and
The accommodation between European invaders and native
‘mental instability’ in 1997 and the enforced resignation
LATIN AMERICA 203
of another president in 2000 owing to military intervention.
The current president of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, was
largely unknown to the general public when as Colonel
Chávez he led a coup attempt against a democraticallyelected government in February 1992. This did not stop
him being elected to the presidency in 1998. Peru’s Alberto
Fujimori, though democratically elected in 1990 and 1995,
looked to be on the point of imposing a kind of full-scale
authoritarianism when he finally lost power