Valérie Robin Azevedo

In recent years, exhumation campaigns of mass graves resulting from the armed conflict (1980–2000) between the Maoist guerrillas of PCP-Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the States armed forces have increased in Peru. People in rural Andes, the most marginalised sectors of national society, which were also particularly affected by the war, are the main group concerned with exhumations. This article examines the handling, flow and re-appropriation of exhumed human remains in public space to inform sociopolitical issues underlying the reparation policies implemented by the State, sometimes with the support of human rights NGOs. How do the families of victims become involved in this unusual return of their dead? Have the exhumations become a new repertoire of collective action for Andean people seeking to access their fundamental rights and for recognition of their status as citizens? Finally, what do these devices that dignify the dead reveal about the internal workings of Peruvian society – its structural inequities and racism – which permeate the social fabric?

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
José Blanes Jiménez and Edgar Antonio Pabón

14 Cooperation in Jesús de Machaca in Bolivia José Blanes Jiménez and Edgar Antonio Pabón Context Through its European Union-funded project, Intercultural Conflicts, a demo­­cratic and participative regional response from Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, the Centro Boliviano de Estudios Multidisciplinarios (CEBEM) established a cooperation programme with other institutions in Ecuador and Peru oriented towards strengthening the capacities of indigenous peoples and their leaders in the management of their territories. The programme takes place in the particular context

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Open Access (free)
Corpse-work in the prehistory of political boundaries
Richard Kernaghan

contract lingered long after the movement’s demise? Human corpses served the ends of drawing insurgent territory and forging new law. Once upon a recent time what is now the region’s political pre-history had profound impacts upon relations between people and property. I say prehistory because, for Huallaga communities, that era falls on the distant ‘other side’ of the new legal situation founded through the Peruvian state’s military defeat of the Shining Path – an imposition engendering its own silences and forms of oblivion through different tactics where corpses too

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)
George Philip

‘mental instability’ in 1997 and the enforced resignation LATIN AMERICA 203 of another president in 2000 owing to military intervention. The current president of Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, was largely unknown to the general public when as Colonel Chávez he led a coup attempt against a democraticallyelected government in February 1992. This did not stop him being elected to the presidency in 1998. Peru’s Alberto Fujimori, though democratically elected in 1990 and 1995, looked to be on the point of imposing a kind of full-scale authoritarianism when he finally lost power

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
‘Case history’ on violence against women, and against women’s rights to health and to reproductive health
Sara De Vido

state organs (individuals representing the state) has been considered as amounting to torture, inhuman or degrading treatment. That was the conclusion, for example, of the IACommHR in the case Raquel Martín de Mejía v. Peru,128 decided in 1996. The complaint was filed by Raquel Martín de Mejía, by associations for protecting human rights and on behalf of Martín de Mejía’s husband, who had been tortured and killed by a group of military personnel who accused them of being members of the Movimiento revolucionario Tupac Amaru (Tupamaros). For the purpose of my research

in Violence against women’s health in international law
Paul Salzman

Hythlodaeus. The actual narrative of the New Atlantis simply begins: ‘We sailed from Peru, (where we had continued by the space of one whole year), for China and Japan, by the South Sea; taking with us victuals for twelve months; and had good winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five months’ space and more’ (457). Here we have the typical beginning of many a travel narrative. For example, ‘The Discovery of Guiana’, by Sir Walter Ralegh, in Richard Hakluyt’s influential collection of English voyages, opens: ‘On Thursday the 6. of February in the yere 1595. we

in Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America
Jeremy C.A. Smith

characteristically American and resulted from a creative fusion of Western Marxism and indigenous traditions (Schutte, 1993: 18–​71). Not only was Marxism localised in an inter-​civilisational environment, the ontological hostility it harboured at the height of Stalinism to indigenous traditions and to Christianity was discarded. Mariátegui’s Peruvian Marxism attracted revolutionaries deterred by the hostility shown by pro-​Soviet Marxism to Christianity and seeking escape from the suffocating orthodoxy of Stalinism. His philosophy 157 Engagement in the cross-currents of history

in Debating civilisations
Ana María Carrillo

Drug Administration, and the National Institutes of Health of the United States, visited Mexican institutions to advise on technical activities. There were also reciprocal visits with Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Brazil. 69 The Institute of Hygiene had three main functions: production of vaccines and sera, for both national consumption and export; certification of all biological products in accordance with WHO norms

in The politics of vaccination
Arantza Gomez Arana

were the basis for the inauguration of thirdgeneration agreements with Latin American countries (Laporte Galli 1995; Ribeiro Hoffmann 2004). By 1993 all South American countries had made such agreements (Laporte Galli 1995): Argentina and Bolivia in 1990, Venezuela and Uruguay in 1991, Chile in 1990, 1996 and 2002, Mexico in 1991 and 1997, and Paraguay and Brazil in 1992. Agreements were also made with sub-regions: the Andean Community (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, and formerly Venezuela, and sometime member Chile) and CACM in 1993; Mercosur in 1995 (Ribeiro

in The European Union's policy towards Mercosur: