Changes in nursing and mission in
Barbra Mann Wall
In 1914, Britain created the country of Nigeria by joining northern
and southern protectorates together. In a colonisation process that
lasted more than forty years, the British employed treaties, battles,
threats of deportation and collaboration with compliant local rulers
as they established a policy of ‘indirect rule’. Yet racial discrimination
and other forms of alienation led to anti-colonial protests and nationalist resistance movements. After the Second World War
Colonial Caring covers over a century of colonial nursing by nurses from a wide range of countries including: Denmark, Britain, USA, Holland and Italy; with the colonised countries including South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India, Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) and the Danish West Indies. It presents unique perspectives from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism including aspects of race, cultural difference and implications of warfare and politics upon nursing. Viewing nursing’s development under colonial and post-colonial rule reveals different faces of a profession that superficially may appear to be consistent and coherent, yet in reality is constantly reinventing itself. Considering such areas as transnational relationships, class, gender, race and politics, this book aims to present current work in progress within the field, to better understand the complex entanglements in nursing’s development as it was imagined and practised in local imperial, colonial and post-colonial contexts. Taking a chronologically-based structure, early chapters examine nursing in situations of conflict in the post-Crimean period from the Indian Rebellion to the Anglo-Boer War. Recruitment, professionalisation of nursing and of military nursing in particular, are therefore considered before moving deeper into the twentieth century reflecting upon later periods of colonialism in which religion and humanitarianism become more central. Drawing from a wide range of sources from official documents to diaries, memoirs and oral sources, and using a variety of methodologies including qualitative and quantitative approaches, the book represents ground-breaking work.
Why is the nation in a post-colonial world so often seen as a motherland? This study explores the relationship between gender icons and foundational fictions of the nation in different post-colonial spaces. The author's work on the intersections between independence, nationalism and gender has already proved canonical in the field. This book combines her keynote essays on the mother figure and the post-colonial nation with new work on male autobiography, ‘daughter’ writers, the colonial body, the trauma of the post-colony and the nation in a transnational context. Focusing on Africa as well as South Asia, and sexuality as well as gender, the author offers close readings of writers ranging from Chinua Achebe, Ben Okri and Nelson Mandela to Arundhati Roy and Yvonne Vera, shaping these into a critical engagement with theorists of the nation such as Fredric Jameson and Partha Chatterjee. Moving beyond cynical deconstructions of the post-colony, the book mounts a reassessment of the post-colonial nation as a site of potential empowerment, as a ‘paradoxical refuge’ in a globalised world. It acts on its own impassioned argument that post-colonial and nation-state studies address substantively issues hitherto raised chiefly within international feminism.
John Harries, Linda Fibiger, Joan Smith, Tal Adler and Anna Szöke
This article will query the ethics of making and displaying photographs of human
remains. In particular, we will focus on the role of photography in constituting
human remains as specimens, and the centrality of the creation and circulation
of photographic images to the work of physical anthropology and bioarchaeology.
This work has increasingly become the object of ethical scrutiny, particularly
in the context of a (post)colonial politics of recognition in which indigenous
people seek to recover dominion over their looted material heritage, including
the remains of their dead. This ethical concern extends to the question of how
and under what circumstances we may display photographs of human remains.
Moreover, this is not just a matter of whether and when we should or should not
show photographs of the remains of the dead. It is a question of how these
images are composed and produced. Our discussion of the ethics of the image is,
therefore, indivisible from a consideration of the socio-technical process by
which the photographic image is produced, circulated and consumed.
to see that the (post)colonial run-up to genocide was a story of too
much intervention, even in the name of democracy. During my doctoral research, I rediscovered the case of Somaliland. A self-declared independent
republic in the north-western corner of Somalia, Somaliland had declined US and UN interventions
at the beginning of the 1990s, apart from specific assistance (the clean-up of landmines, for
example). Instead, it took care of its peace-building process internally and with its diaspora.
Over the years, even though the international
most advanced to date in respect of
these goals, but it can be pushed further. Before taking steps towards a model of
inter-civilisational engagement in Chapter 4 and Part II, I reflect, in this chapter,
on competing paradigms. What can they offer in terms of the gaps identified
towards the end of the previous chapter, or indeed any others? The three competitors in question are globalisation analysis, Marxism and post-colonial sociology. How they can be situated in relation to contemporary civilisational analysis
is the work of this chapter.
The method here is to
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins
Introduction: contextualising colonial
and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins
Nursing history has until recently been an insular analysis whose central theme was most often professionalisation within national borders,
and although a more international perspective has been emerging
over the past five to ten years there is still a big gap in its literature
when examining the role nurses and nursing played in a country’s
colonial and post-colonial past and the impact that experience of this
particular form of nursing had on the wider development of
countenance, noble, emaciated, the nostrils quivering. (Bataille on
Michelet, quoted in Barthes 1987 : 221)
The role of the intellectual voice in the construction of radical identities
has been central to the post-colonial critique of Ireland.2 Memmi’s
amusedly affectionate dismissal of ‘venerable scholars’ sleepwalking their
way through a history that is constantly passing them by is an appealing
way to circumvent the interminable question ‘Can the subaltern speak?’,
which shadows, in potentia, all pronouncements on the post-colonial
subject and, by analogy, all
-conservative mode of cultural politics (Kapustin,
2009: 151). On the terrain of public discourse the neo-conservative politics of
civilisational clash has been rigorously contested. But within the ‘big discourse’
the uses of the language of civilisation and civilisations were contested in different ways also by civilisational analysis and post-colonial and other radical critics.
The critical response involved reconsideration of religion, tradition, nationalism and modernity (Arjomand, 2014b). African, Indian and Asian perspectives
, ‘Introduction’, to Schreiner’s The
Story of an African Farm (London: Century Hutchinson, 1968), pp. vi–xxv; and
Anne McClintock’s highly identiﬁed reading of Schreiner in Imperial Leather: Race,
Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (London and New York: Routledge,
1995), pp. 258–95.
9 A condition exacerbated by her property-less status.
10 Jo-Ann Wallace, ‘De-scribing The Water Babies: the child in post-colonial theory’,
in Chris Tiﬃn and Alan Lawson (eds), De-scribing Empire (London: Routledge,
1994), pp. 171–84.
11 See David Lloyd’s discussion of Antonio Gramsci and