studies of Batman’s celebrity strategic partnerships with Theo Chocolate and Starbucks use the brands’ core activities of sourcing ‘rare’ products for ‘ethical’ and ‘luxury’ retail and consumption. Closer to the fairtrade model, this approach embeds CSR into the companies’ supply chains, all the while seeking to integrate Congolese chocolate and coffee producers in global production networks and revive production and trade. In this way, CSR for development or humanitarian
This book presents new theories and international empirical evidence on the state of work and employment around the world. Changes in production systems, economic conditions and regulatory conditions are posing new questions about the growing use by employers of precarious forms of work, the contradictory approaches of governments towards employment and social policy, and the ability of trade unions to improve the distribution of decent employment conditions. Designed as a tribute to the highly influential contributions of Jill Rubery, the book proposes a ‘new labour market segmentation approach’ for the investigation of issues of job quality, employment inequalities, and precarious work. This approach is distinctive in seeking to place the changing international patterns and experiences of labour market inequalities in the wider context of shifting gender relations, regulatory regimes and production structures.
The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.
collective forms of representation? In this chapter we examine the original contributions Rubery and her colleagues have made to our understanding of the effects of the rise in outsourcing and production networks on work and workers. While the outcomes for workers continue to receive far less attention than warranted, some important new case-study and empirical research address these issues. We conclude with a discussion of directions for future research. Blurring boundaries and the employment relation Research on the networked organisation emerged in the 1980s and 1990s
‘fragmented’ (Herrigel and Zeitlin, 2010), yet still actively coordinated, international networks of the production and exploitation of value. Importantly, for GPN scholars, the strategies regional actors must adopt to develop favourable positions in global production networks go beyond the more established notions of ‘comparative institutional advantage’ often found in the comparative capitalisms literature. In other words, while comparative institutionalists often posit relatively ‘static’ forms of comparative advantage, work on global production networks sees the
ability to respond to this variability, through the reconfiguration of their own production network and, in turn, each one of these specialised companies could reconfigure its activity by placing themselves in other parallel networks. However, there is evidence that calls these arguments into question. On the one hand, it is found that large business groups end up being established in the field of ancillary services offering a very extensive range of activities, which contradicts the argument of the effectiveness of specialisation. On the other, neither does the
protective gaps facing workers in both standard and non-standard forms of employment, fragmented production networks and, in some countries, the declining power resources of trade unions to enforce rights and ensure workers are protected against unfair treatment (Doellgast et al., 2018; Marchington et al., 2005b; Rubery, 2015). These themes are explored in the chapters by Gerhard Bosch and Steffen Lehndorff (Chapter 2), Mick Marchington and Tony Dundon (Chapter 5) and Maria Karamessini and Damian Grimshaw (Chapter 17). Bosch and Lehndorff compare trends in national systems
behind territories, equipped with titular nations, territorial bureaucracies, territorial media, proto-democratic institutions, such as parliaments (soviets), and an ethno-territorial elite that was ready to take over this legacy. In the case of Yugoslavia and the USSR, these borders thus formed a template for status conﬂicts. Other residues of empire are not territorial, but functional (Rubin and Snyder 1998: 6). These include military organisations, economic networks of supply and production, networks of party or business nomenclature or parts of bureaucracies that