A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers
Qualitative Research Methods
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
The term ‘qualitative research’ encompasses a wide range of different
methods. What underpins these is a shared aim of understanding the
meaning people attribute to experiences in their lives. It has been defined as
an ‘interpretive approach concerned with understanding the meanings which
people attach to actions, decisions, beliefs, values within their social world’
Qualitative Data Analysis
Helen Brooks, Penny Bee and Anne Rogers
Qualitative data includes a range of textual (e.g. transcripts of interviews and
focus groups) and visual (photographic and video) data. During qualitative
analysis researchers make sense of this data gathered from research.
Analysing the data by looking for common themes (known as thematic
analysis) is one of the most common ways in which to do this and involves
examining and recording patterns within the data relating to a specific
German Responses to the June 2019 Mission of the Sea-Watch 3
to enter, and which non-citizens must leave, its territory. I suggest that these acts, and the sizeable public support they have sometimes received, rather than gestures of hospitality or acts of hostility, mark the European response to irregularised migration in the past six or so years as qualitatively new.
This article extends ideas first developed in short essays published in the online magazine Inside Story ( Neumann, 2018 , 2019 ). I thank Inside Story ’s editor Peter Browne for encouraging me to write about Seebrücke and Carola
The Politics of Information and Analysis in Food Security
Daniel Maxwell and Peter Hailey
Numerous factors – some blatant and some subtle – put pressure on
the independent assessment and information collection of famine or near-famine
emergencies, particularly in conflict crises. Some are technical, related to
data quality, the timing of data collection, the lack of data sharing protocols
and the limited ability to utilise qualitative data. Some are related to
resources and the use of analyses as ‘report cards’ on
humanitarian response. But
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
Michelle Lokot, Lisa DiPangrazio, Dorcas Acen, Veronica Gatpan, and Ronald Apunyo
accounted for 27.1 per cent of all study participants, Torit represented 18.1 per cent, Malualkon represented 17.6 per cent, Bor represented 18.6 per cent, Kapoeta represented 16.9 per cent and Juba represented 1.7 per cent.
For surveys, households were randomly sampled while walking through communities, with one participant from every second house selected. The questionnaire was administered to a household member over the age of 15, present in the household at the time of the survey. For the qualitative data collection, purposive and convenience sampling was used to
Chikezirim C. Nwoke, Jennifer Becker, Sofiya Popovych, Mathew Gabriel, and Logan Cochrane
, the researchers agreed to utilise participatory action research ( McIntyre, 2007 ; Kemmis et al. , 2013 ), a community-centred methodological approach that aims to produce applied research while the implementing organisation is adjusting its activities in response to the learning. The study, which was designed to be qualitative, was scheduled to begin in Nigeria in the summer of 2020; however, the global pandemic led to a few adjustments in timeframe and data-collection processes (described below).
Given that the research focuses on the activities of peer
Kurasawa , F.
( 2015 ), ‘ How Does
Humanitarian Visuality Work? A Conceptual Toolkit for a Sociology of Iconic
Suffering ’, Sociologica ,
9 : 1 , 1 – 59 .
Lenette , C.
( 2016 ), ‘ Writing with
Light: An Iconographic-Iconologic Approach to Refugee
Photography ’, Forum: Qualitative Social
from secondary reviews and discourse analysis to qualitative household surveys and participatory action research, they encourage us as academics and as practitioners to reflect on how we understand, learn and listen to people affected by conflict and disaster.
The first research article, by Diego Meza, explores the discourses of humanitarianism, notably resilience and compassion as tools of governance and coercive power in the response to internal displacement in Colombia under President Santos (2010–18). Meza argues that through these dual languages of
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair
Tiers Monde , 180 : 4 ,
825 – 40 , doi: 10.3917/rtm.180.0825 ; English translation available at
(accessed 25 July 2018) .
( 2007 ), ‘ Telling Secrets, Revealing
Lives: Relational Ethics in Research with Intimate
Others ’, Qualitative Inquiry
global rates, Mülhausen et al. state:
Although the problematic nature of methodologies and data collection is
widely acknowledged, many sources, including some INGOs [international NGOs]
and academics, continue to use unreliable statistics to make advocacy
claims. The continued emphasis on (incomplete) quantitative data with weak
analytical potential, as opposed to increasing qualitative data through