Joachim Neander

During the Second World War and its aftermath, the legend was spread that the Germans turned the bodies of Holocaust victims into soap stamped with the initials RIF, falsely interpreted as made from pure Jewish fat. In the years following liberation, RIF soap was solemnly buried in cemeteries all over the world and came to symbolise the six million killed in the Shoah, publicly showing the determination of Jewry to never forget the victims. This article will examine the funerals that started in Bulgaria and then attracted several thousand mourners in Brazil and Romania, attended by prominent public personalities and receiving widespread media coverage at home and abroad. In 1990 Yad Vashem laid the Jewish soap legend to rest, and today tombstones over soap graves are falling into decay with new ones avoiding the word soap. RIF soap, however, is alive in the virtual world of the Internet and remains fiercely disputed between believers and deniers.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Exhumations of Soviet-era victims in contemporary Russia
Viacheslav Bitiutckii

be investigated.10 On 3 August 1989, a group consisting of local newspaper correspondent V. M. Kotenko, deputy chief of the Committee for State Security (KGB) A. K. Nikiforov, searchers from an organization called Rif (Reef), the local historical museum in Voronezh, and members of the civil organization Memorial, together with I. A. Tekutev, one of the original witnesses, examined the forest at Dubovka. On 6 September 1989, the first pit was discovered by searchers from Rif.11 Clearly, the 1989 discovery of human remains in this area necessitated their disinterment

in Human remains and identification
Anna Tybinko

–1976), and the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco (1912–56), which led to much of the friction in the Rif. 3 This description of the Schengen Zone comes verbatim from an essay written by Brigadier General, Ilkka Laitinen, former Executive Director of Frontex. Frontex stands for “the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Members States of the EU,” and the abbreviation likely comes from the

in Migrants shaping Europe, past and present
Annika Lindberg

front pages of international news media as the first EU country to withdraw protection status and revoke residence permits for Syrian nationals who had fled the decade-long war in the country. The decision targeted people originating from the Damascus and Rif areas where, according to Danish immigration authorities’ own, much-criticised reports (see ECRE, 2021 ), the security situation had improved to

in Deportation limbo
Open Access (free)
Simon Mabon

Arabia’, in Metin Heper and Raphael Israeli (eds), Islam and Politics in the Modern Middle East (London: Croom Helm, 1984), p. 56. 64 Rif ’at Sayid Ahmad (ed.), Ras’il Juhayman al-​’Utaybi: Qa’id al-​Muqtahiminlil-​Masjid al-​Haram bi-​Makka (Cairo: n.p., 1988). 65 Amin Al ​Sa’ati, Al-​Shura fi al-​Mamlaka al-​’Arabiya al-​Sa’udiya (Cairo, 1992), pp. 109–​15. 66 Joseph A. Kechichian, ‘The Role of the Ulama in the Politics of an Islamic State: The Case of Saudi Arabia’, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 18, 53–​71. 67 Fouad Ibrahim, The Shi’is of

in Houses built on sand