Sean Healy and Victoria Russell

them, as well as helping to maintain the collective self-esteem of the group and satisfying the narcissistic needs of the group (‘we are sufficiently important that everyone is against us’)’ ( Krekó, 2011 ). In present-day Europe, this is highly visible in conspiracy theories connected to migrants and refugees, but also in the revival of anti-Semitic and anti-Roma prejudices in countries such as Hungary. Writing about the utility of conspiracy theories in the twentieth

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Romani Minorities in Europe and Civic Marginalisation

Numerous scholars and policymakers have highlighted the predicament of Roma as the most disadvantaged ethnic minority in Europe. This predicament has often been discussed as an unfortunate anomaly within otherwise inclusive liberal democratic states.

In this book, Julija Sardelić offers a novel socio-legal enquiry into the position of Roma as marginalised citizens in Europe. Whilst acknowledging previous research on ethnic discrimination, racism and the socio-economic disadvantages Roma face in Europe, she discusses civic marginalisation from the perspective of global citizenship studies. She argues that the Romani minorities in Europe are unique, but the approaches of civic marginalisation Roma have faced are not. States around the globe have applied similar legislation and policies that have made traditionally settled minorities marginalised. These may have seemed inclusive to all citizens or have been designed to improve the position of minority citizens yet they have often actively contributed to the construction of civic marginalisation. The book looks at civic marginalisation by examining topics such as free movement and migration, statelessness and school segregation as well as how minorities respond to marginalisation. It shows how marginalised minorities can have a wide spectrum of ‘multicultural rights’ and still face racism and significant human rights violations. To understand such a paradox, Sardelić offers new theoretical concepts, such as the invisible edges of citizenship and citizenship fringes.

of citizenship (Taylor et al. , 2018 ). Recently there has been a growing consensus among scholars that it is predominantly practices and discourses of racialisation that make Roma visible as a minority throughout the European public space (Yuval-Davis et al. , 2017 ; McGarry, 2017 ; Kóczé and Rövid, 2017 ; Yildiz and De Genova, 2018 ): the novel form of racialisation is connected to ascribing fixed cultural characteristics to Roma, which are seemingly incompatible with liberal democratic states. As these scholars have shown, whilst racialisation constructs

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Open Access (free)
Strangers among citizens

in equal protection of rights for Roma. Multicultural legislation for minority protection and policies addressing specifically the position of Roma have not significantly contributed to substantive equality. There are three key questions here: (1) why do formally guaranteed rights (in constitutions and other legislation) fail to protect Roma? (2) why does international legislation and policies for inclusion fail to remedy marginalisation? and (3) do these shortcomings only speak to the case of Roma? These questions carry a sense of urgency: the perceived failure of

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Open Access (free)
Reflecting on citizenship from the fringe

This book has contemplated the position of Roma as citizens in Europe. Whilst acknowledging ethnic discrimination and anti-Roma racism, as well as the socio-economic disadvantage that Roma face in some of world's most developed states, 1 it has explored the position of Romani minorities from the perspective of citizenship studies. Through a socio-legal analysis of (inter)national legislation and policies, it has focused on civic marginalisation: it has examined how states and international

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Sabotage as a citizenship enactment at the fringes

Introduction In 2013, Nazif Mujić, a Bosnian citizen of Romani background, received a Silver Bear Award at the Berlin International Film Festival. He won the award for his leading role in a low-budget film, An Episode in the Life of an Iron Picker , directed by the acclaimed director Danis Tanović. The film showed the daily struggles stateless Roma face: in a role of a husband, playing out his life, Mujić destroys his car and sells it as scrap metal so that he can pay for his wife's urgent medical treatment. She has no

in The Fringes of Citizenship

If all the Gypsies were to steal, Tour Eiffel would disappear from ‘Sarkozy versus Gypsy’ sung by VAMA, featuring Ralflo, as a protest against the 2010 expulsions of Roma from France, quoted in Romea.cz, 2010 Introduction In her 2007 journal article, Linda Bosniak argued normatively that all residents in liberal democratic states should have equal rights on the same

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Total infringement of citizenship

I have made more than 20 formal applications for documents since 1991. I even visited the Ombudsman's Office. They [the authorities] didn't explain things to me, they just asked for documents that I don't have. Haidar Osmani, stateless Roma in North Macedonia, quoted in UNHCR statelessness report (UNHCR, 2017c : 27) This is a problem many believe has been

in The Fringes of Citizenship
School segregation of Romani children

choice. 2016 report Being Fair, Faring Better: Promoting Equality of Opportunity for Marginalized Roma published by the World Bank (Gatti et al ., 2016 : xix) Introduction Between 31 May and 2 June 2019, Pope Francis paid a visit to Romania and made a historical apology to all Roma in Europe. He apologised for the harm inflicted on Roma by the majority populations and institutions affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Prominent international media in

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Author: Sara De Vido

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).