Andrew Bowie

2 German Idealism and early German Romanticism Thinking the infinite The immediate consequences from the 1790s onwards of the perceived failure of Kant’s attempt to ground philosophy in the principle of subjectivity are apparent in two areas of philosophy which carry the broad names ‘German Idealism’, which is mainly associated with Fichte, Schelling and Hegel; and ‘early Romanticism’, which is mainly associated with Novalis, Friedrich Schlegel and (in some respects) Friedrich Schleiermacher.1 There are, as we shall see, crucial respects in which these two

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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The gothic novel in Ireland, 1760–1830 offers a compelling account of the development of gothic literature in late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century Ireland. Against traditional scholarly understandings of Irish gothic fiction as a largely late-nineteenth century development, this study recovers to view a whole body of Irish literary production too often overlooked today. Its robust examination of primary texts, the contexts in which they were produced, and the critical perspectives from which they have been analysed yields a rigorous account of the largely retrospective formal and generic classifications that have worked to eliminate eighteenth-century and Romantic-era Irish fiction from the history of gothic literature. The works assessed here powerfully demonstrate that what we now understand as typical of ‘the gothic novel’– medieval, Catholic Continental settings; supernatural figures and events; an interest in the assertion of British modernity – is not necessarily what eighteenth- and nineteenth-century readers or writers would have identified as ‘gothic’. They moreover point to the manner in which scholarly focus on the national tale and allied genres has effected an erasure of the continued production and influence of gothic literature in Romantic Ireland. Combining quantitative analysis with meticulous qualitative readings of a selection of representative texts, this book sketches a new formal, generic, and ideological map of gothic literary production in this period. As it does so, it persuasively positions Irish works and authors at the centre of a newly understood paradigm of the development of the literary gothic across Ireland, Britain, and Europe between 1760 and 1830.

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Murder, mayhem and the remaking of the mind, 1750–1830
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The making of the ‘modern self’ is one of the grand narratives in the history of the western world. Yet most scholars of the self disregard to what extent common people participated in this history. This book uses five hundred Belgian criminal trial records of murder, sodomy and prostitution cases from between 1750 and 1830 to retell the European history of the self. By means of these unusual sources, the book not only shifts attention towards common people’s changing self-conceptions, but also to the diversity of discourses and practices of the self. The book indicates that, along with conflicting tendencies, there was an increasing stress on inner depth in the interactions in criminal courts after around 1800. This depth was not only important for elites, but also, and sometimes especially, for common people. In five chapters, the book discusses the impact of changing criminal procedures on practices of confession and remorse, the increasing claims people made that their actions were rational and universal, the ways in which they claimed to have ‘lost’ their self by drinking, passion or insanity, the changing displays of tears and sympathy, and talk about human and individual nature.

Andrew Bowie

Romanticism: music, logos and feeling In contrast to the late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century thinkers who give music a central role – such as the early Romantics, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche – Hegel, as we have seen, regards music, like the rest of the arts, as a subordinate manifestation of truth. In order to put Hegel’s response to music in an appropriate context we need now to take a further look at changes in the understanding of music in Hegel’s time. Carl Dahlhaus explores these changes in Die Idee der absoluten Musik (The Idea of Absolute Music). At the end of the

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Fichte, Hölderlin and Novalis
Andrew Bowie

all, without which there would be nothing but opaque, inert being; on the other – and this can be the case even in theories which still give the I a central role in constituting the world’s intelligibility – the I seems incapable of making itself intelligible to itself in any exhaustive way. This conflicting image of the I is evident in three of the most notable explorations of the nature of the I in German Idealism and early Romanticism: those of Fichte, Hölderlin, and Novalis, and the questions they raise remain central even to contemporary philosophy. Fichte

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Perspectives on civilisation in Latin America
Jeremy C.A. Smith

–​86). The American and multi-​civilisational consciousness that Mariátegui promoted furthered a Latin American Romanticism, a passionate ‘reenchantment of the world’ (Lowy and Duggan, 1998: 82). The appeal of Mariátegui’s politics and philosophy to later radicals came from his blend of elements as well as his ability to speak to the problem of re-​enchantment. His thought comprised a heterodox combination of Freud, Nietzsche, Gramsci and Georges Sorel. The result was a far-​reaching critique of Western rationalism. The manner in which he distinguished modernity and

in Debating civilisations
Robert Murphy

romanticism, politics, class, masculinity, sexuality and social problems. Durgnat writes appreciatively about Hammer and Gainsborough, purveyors of despised melodramas and horror films; he takes Powell and Pressburger seriously and gives sympathetic consideration to directors like Val Guest, Roy Baker, J. Lee Thompson, Basil Dearden, Roy and John Boulting and John Guillermin who were regarded as irredeemably

in British cinema of the 1950s
Re-examining paradigms of sibling incest
Jenny DiPlacidi

analysis with an examination of Brontë’s Wuthering Heights that follows a gap of some forty-seven years that often causes it to be read within a well-established tradition of Romanticism and narcissistic incest. By repositioning Brontë’s novel away from the texts it is normally read alongside, I find that a wider range of interpretative possibilities of the incest thematic becomes available

in Gothic incest
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Practising sentimentalism and romanticism in criminal court
Elwin Hofman

cultures of sensibility and romanticism from the perspective of the criminal courts and assess its influence on the self. 7 Much of the historiography of sensibility has focused on sources of the upper middling sorts; this literature has hence concluded that sensibility was mainly an affair of the upcoming, consumerist urbanites. 8 I hope to balance this picture and show that people from lower social groups also took part in this culture. I should make a short caveat about the terminology of ‘emotions’. I have already discussed emotions occasionally throughout

in Trials of the self
From Kant to Nietzsche
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In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.