From Kant to Nietzsche

In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.

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Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’

begging the question, restrict the materials for an answer to those that science can countenance’ (McDowell 1998 p. 72). Schelling is one of the first to take up this metaphysical question in a serious way in modernity, and he does so in a manner which, despite many now obsolete features and untenable arguments, still has resonances for contemporary thought. The crucial question posed by the Schelling of the STI is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. In the contemporary reflections on

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda

infections (STIs) in Buhaya in colonial Tanganyika and malnutrition in Buganda, the largest kingdom in Uganda. 2 In particular, the chapter will consider the role played by non-medical academic researchers, who were affiliated to the colonial state, in shaping medical understanding of the context within which these two particular medical problems existed. Government anthropologists and a variety of social

in Beyond the state

complexity, and it is becoming clear that the stories told about the implications of Idealism and Romanticism are in need of considerable revision in the light of changing conceptions in contemporary philosophy. The standard story of German Idealism is that it is inaugurated by Fichte’s radicalisation of Kant’s turn to the subject, is continued in Schelling’s System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) and ‘identity philosophy’, and culminates in Hegel’s system. Hegel is then superseded by Marx, who turns Hegel’s speculation into a new form of materialist philosophy. A logic

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
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The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art

‘self-recognition in the other’. It follows the developmental model of the STI, but aims to show how the structure of reflection can be revealed to be present in the development of thought from its lowest to its highest stages. In the PG self-consciousness is revealed not to be the prior principle it is in Descartes or the early Fichte. Selfconsciousness can only come about for Hegel via that which it is not: another self-consciousness. Without the other, I would remain in a state of unreflecting immediacy, like an embryo that never becomes a person. In reflection I can

in Aesthetics and subjectivity

thought is far more of a struggle than it was in the STI or his identity philosophy, and uses music as a means of understanding it. ‘Divine madness’, the state associated with Dionysian intoxication, is a result of the battle between that aspect of nature whose essence is to remain part of the inherently unconscious primeval One – which is a force of contraction, in contrast to the absolute ‘I’ of the STI, which had to limit its infinite expansion if it was to become conscious of itself – and that aspect which strives beyond the One towards consciousness, which is a

in Aesthetics and subjectivity

Source: OECD Broadband Portal: www.oecd.org/sti/broadband/oecdbroadbandportal.htm . 42 Ferguson ( 2013 ). BT claims 1.7 million customers for FTTC/FTP, see BT ( 2013 ) First Quarter results. 43 IP/12/1244 and C(2012) 8223 final, State aid SA.33671 (2012/N). In particular, the EC drew

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