The Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina
David Bruce MacDonald

2441Chapter8 16/10/02 8:06 am Page 220 8 ‘Greater Serbia’ and ‘Greater Croatia’: the Moslem question in Bosnia-Hercegovina We live in the borderland between two worlds, on the border between nations, within everybody’s reach, always someone’s scapegoat. Against us the waves of history break, as if against a cliff. (Meša Selimoviš : Dervish and Death)1 I can see that the situation is far more complicated and more difficult than other problems I have seen, even Cambodia. It is the peculiar three-sided nature of the struggle here that makes it so difficult

in Balkan holocausts?
Christine E. Hallett

1 Heroines in Belgium and Serbia Introduction: plucky nurses At the outbreak of the First World War British women volunteered for war service in such numbers that organisations such as the Red Cross and the Order of St John of Jerusalem found themselves, initially, overwhelmed. Many of those who offered to nurse the wounded held no nursing qualifications of any kind, and had to wait until they had passed VAD examinations, or acquired full nurse-training in recognised training hospitals, before they could gain acceptance for military service. American women, too

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
David Bruce MacDonald

2441Chapter4 16/10/02 8:04 am Page 98 4 Croatia, ‘Greater Serbianism’, and the conflict between East and West Christ’s remarkable principle: ‘Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them that use and persecute you.’ That selfless sentiment has remained throughout history a cry of the weak, or an expression of those who have accepted their doom . . . No matter how many examples can be found in life and history to support such renunciation, it has never overcome the passions of hatred and the desire to

in Balkan holocausts?
Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

; Jenkinson, 2016 , 2018 ). Meanwhile on the Eastern Front, at one point, one-third of the Serbian population was on the move along with hundreds of thousands of Italian and Greek refugees in the Mediterranean and Balkans. Farther north, equally great numbers of Jewish, Armenian, and Turkish refugees traveled along the Eastern European border with Russia ( Cabanes, 2014 ). Many of Europe’s refugees had become stateless through having been expelled by conquering armies, and as documentation linking people to countries was not common ( Cabanes, 2014 ; Ngai, 2004 ). By the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Negotiated Exceptions at Risk of Manipulation
Maelle L’Homme

equally vulnerable to attack and even the presence of an international force mandated by a resolution of the UN Security Council has proven ineffective, if not counterproductive. In former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, the corridors connecting safe zones to the outside world were targeted as much as the zones themselves, by both parties. Between July 1992 and January 1996, for instance, the Sarajevo airlift was the target of over 270 incidents caused by both the Bosnian Serbs to prevent humanitarian aid and the Bosnian Muslims to provoke Western politicians into military

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

’, 1 March . www.opcw.org/media-centre/news/2019/03/opcw-issues-fact-finding-mission-report-chemical-weapons-use-allegation (accessed 21 April 2020 ). Patočka , J. ( 2016 ), ‘ Syria Conflict and Chemical Weapons: What is the Reality? ’, Military Medical Science Letters , 85 : 1 , 39 – 43 , doi: 10.31482/mmsl.2016.006 . Physicians for Human Rights ( 1998 ),’ Medical Group Documents Systematic and Pervasive Abuses by Serbs against Albanian Kosovar Health Professionals and Albanian Kosovar Patients ’ ( Boston : PHR ). ( Preliminary report 23

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia

Comparing and contrasting propaganda in Serbia and Croatia from 1986 to 1999, this book analyses each group's contemporary interpretations of history and current events. It offers a detailed discussion of Holocaust imagery and the history of victim-centred writing in nationalist theory, including the links between the comparative genocide debate, the so-called Holocaust industry, and Serbian and Croatian nationalism. There is a detailed analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda over the Internet, detailing how and why the Internet war was as important as the ground wars in Kosovo, Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina, and a theme-by-theme analysis of Serbian and Croatian propaganda, using contemporary media sources, novels, academic works and journals.

In the story of post-Cold War conceptual confusion, the war in and over Kosovo stands out as a particularly interesting episode. This book provides new and stimulating perspectives on how Kosovo has shaped the new Europe. It breaks down traditional assumptions in the field of security studies by sidelining the theoretical worldview that underlies mainstream strategic thinking on recent events in Kosovo. The book offers a conceptual overview of the Kosovo debate, placing these events in the context of globalisation, European integration and the discourse of modernity and its aftermath. It then examines Kosovo's impact on the idea of war. One of the great paradoxes of the war in Kosovo was that it was not just one campaign but two: there was the ethnic cleansing campaign in Kosovo and the allied bombing campaign against targets in Kosovo and all over Serbia. Serbia's killing of Kosovo has set the parameters of the Balkanisation-integration nexus, offering 'Europe' (and the West in general) a unique opportunity to suggest itself as the strong centre that keeps the margins from running away. Next, it investigates 'Kosovo' as a product of the decay of modern institutions and discourses like sovereignty, statehood, the warring state or the United Nations system. 'Kosovo' has introduced new overtones into the European Weltanschauung and the ways in which 'Europe' asserts itself as an independent power discourse in a globalising world: increasingly diffident, looking for firm foundations in the conceptual void of the turn of the century.

Communism, post-Communism, and the war in Croatia
David Bruce MacDonald

Yugoslav peoples had the task of rebuilding their society after it had been torn apart by occupation and fratricidal warfare. The legends surrounding Tito’s Communist Partisans and their war of liberation are well known, immortalised in such works as Milovan Djilas’ Wartime, Fitzroy Maclean’s The Heretic, and Frank Lindsay’s Beacons in the Night. However, as has been seen in the preceding two chapters, contemporary Serbian and Croatian reinterpretations of this period were often negative. The Croatian myth of Bleiburg maintained that the foundations of Tito’s Yugoslavia

in Balkan holocausts?
David Bruce MacDonald

2441Chapter3 16/10/02 8:04 am Page 63 3 Slobodan Milošević and the construction of Serbophobia The history of Serbian lands . . . is full of instances of genocide against the Serbs and of exoduses to which they were exposed. Processes of annihilation of the Serbs in the most diverse and brutal ways have been continuous. Throughout their history they have faced the fiercest forms of genocide and exoduses that have jeopardised their existence, yet they have always been self-defenders of their own existence, spirituality, culture, and democratic convictions

in Balkan holocausts?