Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War

residents and displaced were leaving Leer as well, MSF’s 240 local staff stayed and continued to operate the hospital. Looting of the facility reportedly began in the last days when the staff were present and working, involving civilians and combatants alike in the panic and confusion created by the government’s offensive, including shelling the town. As one local witness recalled: ‘Light things like mats, medicines, items which can easily be picked up were taken by people from the community. Heavy machines were taken by the soldiers, both the rebels and the government

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.

2543Chap3 16/7/03 9:58 am Page 43 3 The climate strategies of the oil industry Oil companies want to sell as much oil and gas as possible at the highest possible price. Still, a quick glance at the web pages of Shell, ExxonMobil and Statoil (as well as other US and Europeanbased oil companies) reveals significant differences in their perceptions of climate change. What are the strategies adopted by ExxonMobil, the Shell Group and Statoil on the climate issue? Do they merely use different rhetoric to please their clients, consumers and employees, or is the

in Climate change and the oil industry
Open Access (free)

stimulated and corporate resistance overcome. To address the research questions and move towards a better understanding of factors explaining changes and differences in corporate climate strategies, we have chosen to focus on three major oil companies in this study: ExxonMobil, the Shell Group and Statoil. Crudely put, these companies share the same core aim of selling as much oil and gas as possible at the highest possible price and the lowest possible cost within the same global market. The business opportunities and challenges offered by regulatory measures to curb GHG

in Climate change and the oil industry

2543Chap5 16/7/03 9:58 am Page 104 5 The Domestic Politics model Company-specific differences between ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil can shed light on differences in their climate strategies to only a limited extent. Chapter 4 revealed that company-specific features with implications for climate strategies are marked more by similarities than differences. The CA model is also incapable of explaining changes in corporate climate strategies. We explore whether the national political contexts in which the companies operate prove more capable of explaining

in Climate change and the oil industry
Open Access (free)

companies such as BP (British Petroleum) and Shell support the Kyoto Protocol, have set ambitious goals to reduce their own greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and have invested in renewable energy. At present, these companies increasingly see themselves as energy companies rather than merely oil companies. Conversely, a major US-based company such as ExxonMobil – the biggest company in the world – has not changed at all. ExxonMobil opposes the Kyoto Protocol, it has not set any reduction targets for its own GHG emissions, and it does not have any immediate plans to invest in

in Climate change and the oil industry
Open Access (free)

differences in in-house scientific and technological expertise that may influence the perception of causes as well as solutions to environmental problems characterised by scientific uncertainty. Finally, an important organisational dimension with a potential impact on environmental strategy choice is the ownership structure of the corporation. First, there is a major distinction between state and private ownership. Shell and ExxonMobil are private companies, while Statoil was, until recently, fully owned by the Norwegian state. National oil companies may be less accountable

in Climate change and the oil industry

2543Chap4 16/7/03 9:58 am Page 74 4 The Corporate Actor model The previous chapter demonstrated the striking differences in the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, the Shell Group and Statoil. While ExxonMobil has adopted a reactive strategy, Shell has chosen a proactive response, and Statoil has adopted a strategy representing a hybrid between these two positions. In this chapter we explore the explanatory power of the approach we have labelled the Corporate Actor (CA) model. To recapitulate our discussion from chapter 2, the CA model suggests that

in Climate change and the oil industry

good understanding of Shell’s turnabout from a reactive to a proactive company. Additionally, it is difficult to understand on the basis of the CA and DP models why ExxonMobil did not modify its reactive strategy in the four-year period from the US’s signing of the Kyoto Protocol until Bush Jr was elected president. In this chapter, we shift our focus from the domestic to the international level. To what extent can the international climate regime explain the strategies chosen by the oil industry? Climate change is a global problem partly caused by global actors

in Climate change and the oil industry

Chirurgical Mobile No. 1.23 In June 1915, La Motte found herself under bombardment at Dunkirk whilst en route from Paris to Rousbrugge. She decided to ‘kill time’ by writing an account of her experiences for the popular American journal The Atlantic Monthly. Her writing is vivid and 79 Independent ladies immediate; she informs the reader that she is describing events as they unfold, in an attempt to calm her nerves, adding that ‘as each shell strikes I  spring back to the window, and my chair falls backwards, while the others laugh’.24 Her article was published five

in Nurse Writers of the Great War