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This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing, examining the constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links together the questions of democracy and legitimacy, competences and rights, and the prospects for European polity-building. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the emerging European polity and the questions that further treaty reform generates for the future of the regional system. The authors also assess the evolving European security architecture; the limits and possibilities of a genuine European foreign, security and defence policy; and the role of the EU in the post-Cold War international system. Common themes involve debates about stability and instability, continuity and change, multipolarity and leadership, co-operation and discord, power capabilities and patterns of behaviour. The book traces the defining features of the ‘new order’ in Europe and incorporates an analysis of the post-September 11th context.

became involved in the process.17 There were also structural problems, such as the lack of Land instruments to coordinate the flood of information and direct it to the appropriate subject ministries and the difficulty of coordinating Land responses and arriving at some consensus among the Länder. Thus, while it seemed as though the Länder had now been able to secure their position in matters involving European integration, practice proved otherwise.18 The Bundesrat and the ratification of the Single European Act Various proposals and efforts in the early 1980s to

in The Länder and German federalism

This chapter examines the latest theoretical trends and the two treaty revisions that occurred during the mid-1980s and early 1990s, introducing the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union (TEU), which resulted from the treaty revisions, and neofunctionalism, which re-emerged as the leading theory of European integration. The next part studies the state of theorising European integration in the 1990s in relation to the constitutional and political physiognomy of the Maastricht Treaty. The final part of the chapter focuses on the new theoretical approaches, which include the fusion thesis and new institutionalism.

in Theory and reform in the European Union

Single European Act 1985–87 By 1985 the Community was ready to take a further step forward. This was movement towards the creation of a single market. This involved three main provisions: 1 There was to be completely free movement of goods, capital and people between member states. There was already such a provision in theory. However, in practice there were still various forms of restriction. For example members were still preventing some people from moving from one country to another. This inhibited the idea of a free labour market. There were still various forms of

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)

Intergovernmental Conference JHA Justice and Home Affairs (pillar of the EU) NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation OEEC Organisation for European Economic Co-operation OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCE Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe QMV Qualified Majority Voting SEA Single European Act TEU Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) UN (see UNO) UNO United Nations Organisation WEU Western European Union WTO World Trade Organisation Miscellaneous

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)
Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East

summit in Milan in June 1985. It led to the Single European Act (SEA), adopted in 1986, which entered into force in 1987. The Single European Act is a complicated treaty (although less so than its successor, the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union). The most important parts are not those by which the competencies of, and interplay among, the EC’s organs were being modified.10 Rather, it was this one article, 8.A, which was incorporated so as to amend the founding EEC Rome Treaty: ‘The Community shall adopt measures with the aim of progressively establishing the

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?

a vanished Berlin Wall and a weakening Soviet hold over Central and Eastern Europe; and, since November 1991, a Soviet Union that had vanished altogether.10 Other factors were at work. Many of those involved in European Community decision making were disappointed with a 1986 Single European Act which in their view did not sufficiently advance the process of integration. The ‘1992 project’ was seen as too down-to-earth and in need of a loftier vision to supplement it, including a sorely missing ‘social dimension’. Furthermore, how could an internal market function

in Destination Europe

Schleyer Affair Secret Army Organisation (OAS) Single European Act (SEA) Single Transferable Vote (STV) social capital social market economy South Tyrol question Spanish civil war Spanish coup attempt (1981) Spiegel Affair spin doctor Stability and Growth Pact [See: Economic and Monetary Union] Stalin Note Stammheim trials [See: Baader-Meinhof group] Stasi Stormont

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)

policy document to appear concerning sustainable development. While these initiatives were taking place, the European Community were placing the environment onto their agenda. In 1987 the Single European Act was implemented. This Act made environmental protection one of the responsibilities of the Community, with voting on the issue in the Council of Ministers requiring unanimity to protect national interests. In 1993 John Gummer became Environment Secretary. This was a key event as Gummer was an important environmental campaigner. He wished to build on the progress

in Understanding British and European political issues
A child of the Kosovo crisis?

who did favour quick or decisive progress on the military front. A declaratory breakthrough was contained in Title V Article J.4, where it was stated that, for the first time, the new Union’s ‘common foreign and security policy shall include all questions relating to the security of the Union’. Previously, under the terms of the Single European Act of 1987, only the political and economic dimensions of security had been

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security