This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing, examining the constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links together the questions of democracy and legitimacy, competences and rights, and the prospects for European polity-building. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the emerging European polity and the questions that further treaty reform generates for the future of the regional system. The authors also assess the evolving European security architecture; the limits and possibilities of a genuine European foreign, security and defence policy; and the role of the EU in the post-Cold War international system. Common themes involve debates about stability and instability, continuity and change, multipolarity and leadership, co-operation and discord, power capabilities and patterns of behaviour. The book traces the defining features of the ‘new order’ in Europe and incorporates an analysis of the post-September 11th context.
became involved in the process.17 There were also structural problems, such as the lack of Land instruments to coordinate the
flood of information and direct it to the appropriate subject ministries
and the difficulty of coordinating Land responses and arriving at some
consensus among the Länder. Thus, while it seemed as though the Länder
had now been able to secure their position in matters involving European
integration, practice proved otherwise.18
The Bundesrat and the ratification of the SingleEuropeanAct
Various proposals and efforts in the early 1980s to
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
This chapter examines the latest theoretical trends and the two treaty revisions that occurred during the mid-1980s and early 1990s, introducing the Single European Act and the Treaty on European Union (TEU), which resulted from the treaty revisions, and neofunctionalism, which re-emerged as the leading theory of European integration. The next part studies the state of theorising European integration in the 1990s in relation to the constitutional and political physiognomy of the Maastricht Treaty. The final part of the chapter focuses on the new theoretical approaches, which include the fusion thesis and new institutionalism.
By 1985 the Community was ready to take a further step forward. This was
movement towards the creation of a single market. This involved three main
1 There was to be completely free movement of goods, capital and people
between member states. There was already such a provision in theory.
However, in practice there were still various forms of restriction. For
example members were still preventing some people from moving from one
country to another. This inhibited the idea of a free labour market. There
were still various forms of
Intergovernmental Conference JHA Justice and Home Affairs (pillar of the EU) NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation OEEC Organisation for European Economic Co-operation OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OSCE Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe QMV Qualified Majority Voting SEA SingleEuropeanAct TEU Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) UN (see UNO) UNO United Nations Organisation WEU Western European Union WTO World Trade Organisation
summit in Milan in June 1985. It led to the SingleEuropeanAct (SEA), adopted in 1986, which entered into force in 1987.
The SingleEuropeanAct is a complicated treaty (although less so than
its successor, the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union). The most
important parts are not those by which the competencies of, and interplay among, the EC’s organs were being modified.10 Rather, it was this
one article, 8.A, which was incorporated so as to amend the founding
EEC Rome Treaty: ‘The Community shall adopt measures with the aim
of progressively establishing the
a vanished Berlin Wall and a weakening
Soviet hold over Central and Eastern Europe; and, since November
1991, a Soviet Union that had vanished altogether.10
Other factors were at work. Many of those involved in European
Community decision making were disappointed with a 1986 SingleEuropeanAct which in their view did not sufficiently advance the process of
integration. The ‘1992 project’ was seen as too down-to-earth and in
need of a loftier vision to supplement it, including a sorely missing ‘social
dimension’. Furthermore, how could an internal market function
Schleyer Affair Secret Army Organisation (OAS) SingleEuropeanAct (SEA) Single Transferable Vote (STV) social
capital social market economy South Tyrol question
Spanish civil war Spanish coup attempt (1981) Spiegel
Affair spin doctor Stability and Growth Pact [See:
Economic and Monetary Union] Stalin Note Stammheim
trials [See: Baader-Meinhof group] Stasi Stormont
to appear concerning sustainable development.
While these initiatives were taking place, the European Community were
placing the environment onto their agenda. In 1987 the SingleEuropeanAct
was implemented. This Act made environmental protection one of the responsibilities of the Community, with voting on the issue in the Council of Ministers
requiring unanimity to protect national interests.
In 1993 John Gummer became Environment Secretary. This was a key event
as Gummer was an important environmental campaigner. He wished to build
on the progress
integral part of
the process of European integration which increasingly – particularly
since the SingleEuropeanAct, the Treaty on European Union and the
subsequent treaties signed at Amsterdam and Nice – has a strong
foreign, security and defence dimension to it.
A second view is that a European foreign policy does not yet
exist but it should. Problems illustrated by the inadequate collective