The impossibility of reason

This book presents an overview of Jean–Jacques Rousseau's work from a political science perspective. Was Rousseau — the great theorist of the French Revolution—really a conservative? The text argues that the author of ‘The Social Contract’ was a constitutionalist much closer to Madison, Montesquieu, and Locke than to revolutionaries. Outlining his profound opposition to Godless materialism and revolutionary change, this book finds parallels between Rousseau and Burke, as well as showing that Rousseau developed the first modern theory of nationalism. It presents an integrated political analysis of Rousseau's educational, ethical, religious and political writings.

Hakim Khaldi

. So in fact, there were deep divisions between these two parties. Furthermore, since taking power in the region, the PYD had snuffed out all political opposition, whether from Kurds or Arabs, and violently suppressed all demonstrations, going so far as to torture or kill potential opponents ( International Crisis Group, 2013 : 26). The PYD had in fact established an authoritarian regime far removed from the social contract drafted in December 2016

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis
Luisa Enria
Sharon Abramowitz
Almudena-Mari Saez
, and
Sylvain Landry B. Faye

of conflict and instability, weak health sectors and economies and an eroded social contract set the foundations for the crisis of 2014. The place of these countries in global history and contemporary dependencies was re-inscribed in the nature of the response. Under the PHEIC (Public Health Emergency of International Concern) declared by the World Health Assembly on 8 August 2014, it was conducted through a joint partnership between the international community and

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

looming environmental disasters. Domestically, the liberal social contract is coming apart in many Western states as the coalition of those who have not benefited from the decades of wealth accumulation after 1979 turns to populist politicians and looks for scapegoats, with experts, immigrants and Muslims seen as prime targets. The commitment to liberal institutions that create limits to the scope of political competition – rights, the rule of law, freedom of the press – and to the basic level of respect due to all persons, be they citizens or refugees

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Interpreting the unions–party link
Steve Ludlam

Harrison’s and Minkin’s seminal studies, just seven other monographs appeared: Irving Richter’s studies of the politics of three affiliated unions (1973); Leo Panitch’s study of incomes policy (1976); William Muller’s study of unionsponsored MPs (1977); Lewis Minkin’s study of the Labour Party Conference (1978); Derek Fatchett’s study of the first struggle over political fund ballots (1987); Andrew Taylor’s analysis of the link during the Social Contract era and its aftermath (1987); and Paul Webb’s study of the link’s institutional forms and of union members’ electoral

in Interpreting the Labour Party
Dominant approaches
M. Anne Brown

be more open to other experiences, other tools. This chapter divides roughly into two parts. The first part introduces briefly the polarity of universalism and relativism that structures much of what it is possible to say on human rights – chapter 3 explores this theme further. The chapter then looks at the story of the Lockean social contract, as one still potent myth of the origin for human rights and more broadly as a mechanism for conceptualising the human political community and ethics in the liberal state. The adequacy of these

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Friends or foes?
Roberto Baldoli
Claudio M. Radaelli

intervention has to be balanced by a dialogic relationship between scientists and society. In the end our proposal is about a social contract: scientists obtain freedom but guarantee self-regulation and an active dialogue with society. Governing risk in the European Union In the experience of the EU, two foundations of risk regulation have emerged. Broadly speaking, we can call one foundation evidence-based policy and the other the precautionary principle. Evidence-based policy is, in principle, the main foundation of regulatory decision-making in the OECD countries and the

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
The place of equal opportunity
Andrew Mason

govern our major institutions, Rawls draws upon the social contract tradition in order to develop a method which he hopes can secure agreement on a particular conception of justice. Rawls’s guiding idea is that the principles which should be adopted are those which rational persons, concerned to further their own interests, would agree upon in an initial position of equality. In order to model this initial

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Emilio Santoro

and the provision of social security. 2 From social contract to zero tolerance From Cesare Beccaria in the eighteenth century to Hart and Rawls in the twentieth, 10 liberal theories of punishment have attempted to combine the general deterrence of crime with due retribution against actual criminals. In eighteenth-century theories, criminal law was regarded as an expression of the general will. As such, it was believed not

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Judith Squires

of liberalism as being androcentric, the second criticises the extent to which elements of the classical tradition are imported into the liberal model of social contract theory and the third criticises the actual patriarchal practices of ‘liberal’ regimes. While the first of these feminist critiques directly rejects the liberal conception of the public–private distinction, the second suggests that liberalism has

in Political concepts