Open Access (free)
Essays on Modern American Literature
Author: David Herd

Modern American literature began with a statement of enthusiasm from Emerson's writing in Nature. 'Enthusiasm', in Emerson, is a knowing word. Sometimes its use is as description, invariably approving, of a historic form of religious experience. Socrates' meaning of enthusiasm, and the image of the enthusiast it throws up, is crucial to this book. The book is a portrait of the writer as an enthusiast, where the portrait, as will become clear, carries more than a hint of polemic. It is about the transmission of literature, showing various writers taking responsibility for that transmission, whether within in their writing or in their cultural activism. Henry David Thoreau's Walden is an enthusiastic book. It is where enthusiasm works both in Immanuel Kant's sense of the unbridled self, and in William Penn's sense of the 'nearer' testament, and in Thoreau's own sense of supernatural serenity. Establishing Ezra Pound's enthusiasm is a fraught and complicated business. Marianne Moore composed poems patiently, sometimes over several years. She is a poet of things, as isolated things - jewels, curios, familiar and exotic animals, common and rare species of plant - are often the ostensible subjects of her poems. Homage to Frank O'Hara is a necessary book, because the sum of his aesthetic was to be found not just in his writing, but also in his actions to which only friends and contemporaries could testify. An enthusiastic reading of James Schuyler brings to the fore pleasure, the sheer pleasure that can come of combining, or mouthing, or transcribing.

Open Access (free)
Rex Martin

in their own country. The issue I want to discuss in this chapter is whether people do in fact have good and justifiable reasons for complying with laws that go beyond mere fear of punishment, and, if so, whether they are bound or obligated by those reasons to comply. 1 One main argument for a duty to obey the law: consent Socrates had to decide whether to

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Terrell Carver

’ actually recounts dramatic yet conversational interchanges between Socrates (as a character) and other named male individuals, and the build-up given by Socrates to the introduction of such a controversial topic is considerable. He assumes that his audience will find the idea of female warriors and rulers ridiculous and absurd, which indeed they do (449a–457b). This episode in political theory has been notorious, rather

in Political concepts
Thomas Docherty

Phèdre tells Socrates to look at a young dancer: ‘Look at her fluttering! You’d say that the dance comes out of her like a flame’, to which Socrates replies: What is a flame, my friends, if it is not the moment itself ?. . . Flame is the act of that moment between earth and sky. My friends, all that passes from a heavy to a subtle state passes through the moment of fire and light . . . Certainly the unique and perpetual object of the soul is that which does not exist; that which was, and which is no more; – that which will be and which is not yet; – that which is

in The new aestheticism
Open Access (free)
Joseph Jaconelli

Joseph Jaconelli 1 What is a trial? Joseph Jaconelli I Three questions To pose the question, ‘What is a trial?’, is to invite an answer which aims to transcend particular times, places and cultures. It is to suggest that, stripped of the rules that are peculiar to particular legal systems, those processes that are properly called ‘trials’ contain some inner essence. It is to claim that the proceedings against Socrates under Athenian law in 399 bc and those brought against Jesus in ad 30 under Jewish and Roman legal procedures have features in common with the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Open Access (free)
Mads Qvortrup

lessons of my masters, with Plato and Socrates for my judges, and the whole of the human race for audience. (III: 135) This little book is an attempt to re-open a dialogue with the classics. It attempts not only to see the masters in context – as has become popular among modern thinkers – but rather to seek inspiration from the great minds to deal with contemporary political problems. Rousseau – and indeed any other classic – is politically relevant only if he reveals timeless insights. If a classic cannot inspire he is nothing, and is better confined to the dustbin of

in The political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Open Access (free)
A short essay on enthusia
David Herd

enthusiasm, as his essay on ‘Inspiration’ indicates, begins, quite properly, with Plato – the Ion, as commentators observe, being the locus classicus of discussions of enthusiasm.7 In this short early dialogue, Socrates is in discussion with the rhapsode ‘Ion’; a rhapsode being a reciter of, chiefly epic, poetry, who in the course of the performance would also sometimes offer commentary upon it. The dialogue centres on the question of enthusiasm, or inspiration, throughout, and is important not least because in it Socrates formulates one of the major tropes of enthusiasm

in Enthusiast!
Open Access (free)
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

system. Plato’s Republic was the first and most important attempt to define justice and what constitutes a just society. Most political philosophy over the past 2500 years has involved discussing the issue of justice raised by Plato in his work, which takes the form of a dialogue between Plato’s friend and teacher Socrates and a number of other philosophers. Several ideas of justice are identified

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Open Access (free)
Thomas Dumm

the opposite of the one that Socrates would endorse, the establishment of a boy’s marching band. But, we must also remember something crucial: The Music Man is a musical that has been an exceedingly successful entertainment, one that gently and kindly pokes fun at the town that Meredith Wilson grew up in, Mason City, Iowa. It has inspired an extraordinary number of amateur

in Cinema, democracy and perfectionism
Open Access (free)
John Toland and print and scribal communities
Justin Champion

identify the scribal outcome of such advertisement. Many of Toland’s announcements denoted intellectual hubris, rather than any serious intention. In Christianity not mysterious (1696) he announced a work called ‘Systems of divinity exploded’; in The Militia reform’d (1698) his proposal was for an account of ‘Brutus, or the history of liberty and tyranny’; in the 1700 edition of Harrington’s works, he claimed that he was going to draw a ‘parallel’ between Socrates and Christ.11 Such rumours of intended works were calculated to cultivate public expectation (and clerical

in Republican learning