This book deals with the institutional framework in post-socialist, after-empire spaces. It consists of nine case studies and two contributions of a more theoretical nature. Each of these analytical narratives sheds some light on the micro-politics of organised violence. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. An 'unprofessional' riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred thousand people were forcefully expelled from their homes. The Herceg-Bosnian style of resistance can be surprisingly effective. It is known that most of the heroin transported along the Balkans route passes through the hands of Albanian mafia groups; that this traffic has taken off since summer 1999. The concept of Staatnation is based on the doctrine according to which each 'nation' must have its own territorial State and each State must consist of one 'nation' only. The slow decline and eventual collapse of the Soviet and the Yugoslav empires was partly triggered, partly accompanied by the quest for national sovereignty. Dagestan is notable for its ethnic diversity and, even by post-Soviet standards, its dramatic economic deprivation. The integrative potential of cooperative movements at the republican, the regional and the inter-state level for the Caucasus is analyzed. The book also offers insights into the economics of ending violence. Finally, it addresses the question of reconciliation after ethnic cleansing.
Abandonment and victory in relations
with dead bodies
Katherine Verdery was the first to make some systematic observations about the accelerated movement of dead bodies in EastCentral Europe following the collapse of the SovietEmpire. She
noted that, in this period of political transformation, the corpses of
political leaders and cultural heroes accrued certain powers leading
to a struggle over appropriating those powers, and to the exhumation and displacement of their bodies (Verdery 1999). Here I wish
to consider the modes of appropriation
little in comparison with the yearnings of
people. The human rights provisions were to eat like a cancer on the
body of the SovietEmpire, leading to its dissolution within twenty years,
and along with it the solemnly guaranteed borders.
In the meantime, West Germany began to show impatience with its
‘economic giant, political dwarf’ status (over time economic power and
political power tend to equalise). It wanted to strengthen contacts with
the sixteen million German citizens living under the communist yoke in
the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany. Lucrative
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 was to be the
last expression of the Brezhnev doctrine – i.e. that Soviet domination had
to be maintained at all costs wherever it had been established – and it
marked the beginning of the end of the SovietEmpire and the Soviet
Union itself. Certain Western commentators saw the invasion as a sign
of the Soviet Union’s desire to push southwards, to the oil of the Middle
East and to the warm seas, just as they warned of a Soviet naval build-up
in South-East Asia and the Indian
the world at the end of the century
ensured that essentially liberal economic systems, political institutions
and moral values were extensively imposed on Africa, Asia and Latin America
and the states of the former SovietEmpire. This has, of course, stimulated
resistance to the ‘globalisation’ of Western liberal values and
Ideologically, liberalism flourished
as never before. As the
, The Gorbachev Factor (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press,
1997), p. 287.
12 Ibid., p. 256.
13 Goldman, Lapidus, Zaslavsky, ‘Introduction’, p. 15.
14 J. Miller, Mikhail Gorbachev and the End of Soviet Power, (New York: St Martin’s
Press, 1993), p. 175.
15 There were two ASSRs in Georgia and one each, in Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan.
There was also one autonomous region in the republics of Azerbaijan, Georgia
16 J. B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the SovietEmpire (Princeton
University Press, 1993), p. 64.
17 A. Sheehy, ‘Russia
neglected the opportunity to transform itself in the early 1990s, its main
problem has been to remain as an active participant in the French party
The PCF: from revolution to reform
system. Its strategic dilemmas turned on this problem of exerting some
power in the constellation of small parties around the PS and it is one
of influence. In other words, the Communist Party has lost its place in
the Sovietempire and it has not found a replacement strategy. With the
arrival of Robert Hue at the head of the Party, questions about what the
their safety. Almost immediately after the DUP leader,
Ian Paisley, condemned these attacks, they ceased.8 One lesson that
took another twenty years to be absorbed by both British and Irish
Governments was that a political settlement in Northern Ireland could
not be made to work if a major grouping there withheld its consent.
The collapse of the Sovietempire in eastern and central Europe in
the late 1980s was not without its repercussions for the crisis in
Northern Ireland. Unlike constitutional nationalists like John Hume and
Seamus Mallon, with whom they were
. Conservatism had historically defined itself as being
‘against’ something, such as the French Revolution, early
manufacturing, the rise of socialism, the labour movement, communism. Now
there was little left to be against. Internationally, the SovietEmpire and
the communist threat had collapsed. Domestically, the Labour Party had
adopted the quasi-Conservative economic and social policies, as the whole
area of political discourse in
the Warsaw Pact
were challenged by its member states. Poland and Romania regularly asserted
their sovereignty in the face of considerable Soviet pressure. Despite the
assertion of Hungarian and Czechoslovakian political sovereignty it was
crushed by Soviet military force in 1956 and 1968, respectively, but the
desire to restore practical sovereignty remained within those states and
contributed to the collapse of the Soviet