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This book deals with the institutional framework in post-socialist, after-empire spaces. It consists of nine case studies and two contributions of a more theoretical nature. Each of these analytical narratives sheds some light on the micro-politics of organised violence. After 1990, Serbs and Croats were competing over access to the resources needed for institution building and state building. Fear in turn triggered ethnic mobilisation. An 'unprofessional' riot of Serbs in the Krajina region developed into a professional war between Serbs and Croats in Croatia, in which several thousand died and several hundred thousand people were forcefully expelled from their homes. The Herceg-Bosnian style of resistance can be surprisingly effective. It is known that most of the heroin transported along the Balkans route passes through the hands of Albanian mafia groups; that this traffic has taken off since summer 1999. The concept of Staatnation is based on the doctrine according to which each 'nation' must have its own territorial State and each State must consist of one 'nation' only. The slow decline and eventual collapse of the Soviet and the Yugoslav empires was partly triggered, partly accompanied by the quest for national sovereignty. Dagestan is notable for its ethnic diversity and, even by post-Soviet standards, its dramatic economic deprivation. The integrative potential of cooperative movements at the republican, the regional and the inter-state level for the Caucasus is analyzed. The book also offers insights into the economics of ending violence. Finally, it addresses the question of reconciliation after ethnic cleansing.

John Borneman

12 Abandonment and victory in relations with dead bodies John Borneman Katherine Verdery was the first to make some systematic observations about the accelerated movement of dead bodies in EastCentral Europe following the collapse of the Soviet Empire. She noted that, in this period of political transformation, the corpses of political leaders and cultural heroes accrued certain powers leading to a struggle over appropriating those powers, and to the exhumation and displacement of their bodies (Verdery 1999). Here I wish to consider the modes of appropriation

in Governing the dead
Open Access (free)
The new Europe takes shape
Kjell M. Torbiörn

little in comparison with the yearnings of people. The human rights provisions were to eat like a cancer on the body of the Soviet Empire, leading to its dissolution within twenty years, and along with it the solemnly guaranteed borders. In the meantime, West Germany began to show impatience with its ‘economic giant, political dwarf’ status (over time economic power and political power tend to equalise). It wanted to strengthen contacts with the sixteen million German citizens living under the communist yoke in the German Democratic Republic, or East Germany. Lucrative

in Destination Europe
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Recovery and hubris; effervescence in the East
Kjell M. Torbiörn

, after decolonisation, neocolonialism? The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 was to be the last expression of the Brezhnev doctrine – i.e. that Soviet domination had to be maintained at all costs wherever it had been established – and it marked the beginning of the end of the Soviet Empire and the Soviet Union itself. Certain Western commentators saw the invasion as a sign of the Soviet Union’s desire to push southwards, to the oil of the Middle East and to the warm seas, just as they warned of a Soviet naval build-up in South-East Asia and the Indian

in Destination Europe
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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

the world at the end of the century ensured that essentially liberal economic systems, political institutions and moral values were extensively imposed on Africa, Asia and Latin America and the states of the former Soviet Empire. This has, of course, stimulated resistance to the ‘globalisation’ of Western liberal values and Western power. Ideologically, liberalism flourished as never before. As the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
Cameron Ross

, The Gorbachev Factor (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 287. 12 Ibid., p. 256. 13 Goldman, Lapidus, Zaslavsky, ‘Introduction’, p. 15. 14 J. Miller, Mikhail Gorbachev and the End of Soviet Power, (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1993), p. 175. 15 There were two ASSRs in Georgia and one each, in Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. There was also one autonomous region in the republics of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Tadjikistan. 16 J. B. Dunlop, The Rise of Russia and the Fall of the Soviet Empire (Princeton University Press, 1993), p. 64. 17 A. Sheehy, ‘Russia

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
From revolution to reform
David S. Bell

Party had neglected the opportunity to transform itself in the early 1990s, its main problem has been to remain as an active participant in the French party The PCF: from revolution to reform 37 system. Its strategic dilemmas turned on this problem of exerting some power in the constellation of small parties around the PS and it is one of influence. In other words, the Communist Party has lost its place in the Soviet empire and it has not found a replacement strategy. With the arrival of Robert Hue at the head of the Party, questions about what the Party’s role

in The French party system
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The Republic and Northern Ireland since 1990
Michael Parker

their safety. Almost immediately after the DUP leader, Ian Paisley, condemned these attacks, they ceased.8 One lesson that took another twenty years to be absorbed by both British and Irish Governments was that a political settlement in Northern Ireland could not be made to work if a major grouping there withheld its consent. The collapse of the Soviet empire in eastern and central Europe in the late 1980s was not without its repercussions for the crisis in Northern Ireland. Unlike constitutional nationalists like John Hume and Seamus Mallon, with whom they were

in Irish literature since 1990
John P. Willerton and Geoffrey Cockerham

states’ trade with one another would automatically decline as a result of the collapse of the Soviet empire.37 A cursory examination of available FSU trade patterns reveals that trade levels among FSU states dropped significantly, by one estimate from $139 billion in 1991 to $59 billion in 2000.38 However, FSU historical, infrastructural and other logistical realities would severely constrain any state from fully escaping significant economic intercourse with other FSU states. In the past decade there has been an explosion of political science literature concerning

in Limiting institutions?
Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

the Warsaw Pact were challenged by its member states. Poland and Romania regularly asserted their sovereignty in the face of considerable Soviet pressure. Despite the assertion of Hungarian and Czechoslovakian political sovereignty it was crushed by Soviet military force in 1956 and 1968, respectively, but the desire to restore practical sovereignty remained within those states and contributed to the collapse of the Soviet

in Understanding political ideas and movements